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BIOLOGIYAI MOLEKULAVi

mol-bioBIOLOGIYAI MOLEKULAVi, yake az faslhoi biologiya, ki ravandhoi dokhilii hayotro tadqiq mekunad. B. m. ba sifati sohai mustaqili ilm ibt. s-hoi 50 a. 20 dar natijai pesh raftani donishho oid ba sokht va amali chunin payvasthoi muhimi khimiyavi, az qabili safedaho va kislotahoi nukleat, ba vujud omadaast.
Vazifai B. m. fahmidani rafti jarayoni irsiyat, hofiza va g. meboshad. Mavzui tadqiqi B. m. payvasthoi kalonmolekulai khimiyavi (makromolekulaho) – and. Kalon budani vazni molekulavii onho (to sadho million dalton) boisi paydoishi khosiyathoi sifatan nave megardad, ki payvasthoi khurdmolekula doro nestand. Tadqiqi mufassali makromolekulaho (khosiyathoi khimiyavi va fiziki, sintez, tajziyai onho dar organizm, funksiyahoi biologi va g.) badi muayyan kardani sokhti payvasthoi gunoguni khimiyavi, takmili usulhoi judo va toza namudani onho (dar shakli kristalli) imkonpazir gasht. B. m. ba tufayli tadqiqoti yakjoyai olimoni sohahoi gunoguni tabiatshinosi pesh meravad.
Ba inkishofi B. m. khimiyai organiki (sokht va khosiyathoi payvasthoi gunoguni khimiyaviro meomuzad), biokhimiya (ba omuzishi protseshoi mubodila dar obekthoi biologi mashgul ast), biofizika (khosiyathoi fizikii makromolekulahoro meomuzad), genetika (mavqei makromolekulahoro dar jarayoni irsiyat oshkor mekunad), sitologiya (oid ba nozukii sokhti hujayra bahs mekunad) va matematika (bo modelonii namudhoi gunoguni protsesshoi biologi mashgul ast) tasiri bevosita merasonand. Bo jiddu jahdi namoyandagoni sohahoi gunoguni ilm masalahoi aloqamandii sokht va tabdili tarkibii makromolekulaho va funksiyahoi biologii onho bomuvaffaqiyat hal karda meshavand. Du navi makromolekulaho – safedaho va kislotahoi nukleat jolibi diqqatand. Safedaho dar tarkibi boftahoi zinda vujud dorand. Onho chunin amaliyothoi muhimi biologiro ado mekunand: katalizi fermentii reaksiyahoi gunoguni biologi; intiqol dodani moddahoe, ki baroi hayot khele zarur meboshand (mas., oksigenro tavassuti jarayoni khun ba boftahoi organizm burda merasonand); qobiliyati kashishkhuri (safedahoi mushak), faoliyati immunologi (nig. Immunitet). Kislotahoi nukleat homili akhbori irsi meboshand. Omuzishi onho imkon medihad, ki qonunhoi irsiyat, tarzi intiqoli akhbori irsi, inchunin sababhoi paydoishi in yo on bemorii irsi oshkor karda shavand. Nig. niz Bemorihoi irsi.

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biologiya

BIOLOGIYA

BIOLOGIYA (Biologia; az bio… va …logiya), majmui ilmhoest oid ba tabiati zinda. B. hamai namudhoi …