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BIOHIMIYA

biokhimiyaBIOHIMIYA (Biochimia; az bio… va khimiya), khimiyai biologi, ilmest, ki sokht, mubodila va faoliyati hayotii moddahoi khimiyavii organizmro meomuzad. B. a.-hoi 19 – 20 dar natijai muttahid gashtani dastovardhoi khimiyai organiki, fiziologiya va g. ba vujud omad. Himiyai organiki, ki mavzui tadqiqi on payvasthoi karboni meboshad, inchunin tahlil va sintezi moddahoe, ki boftahoi zindaro hosil mekunand, asosi B.-i sokhtori (fasli B., ki moddahoi organikii tabii, tahlil va sintezi onhoro meomuzad) mahsub meshavand. Tadqiqi jarayoni khimiyavie, ki asosi faoliyati hayotii organizm meboshad, boisi tashakkuli B.-i dinamiki gardid. B.-i dinamiki nazar ba khimiyai organiki ba tib va fiziologiya nazdiktar ast, binobar in qablan onro khimiyai fiziologi yo tibbi menomidand.
Az nigohi ilmi khimiya omukhtani materiyai zinda az zamonhoi qadim malum ast. On bo zarurati tadqiqi organizmhoi zinda (hayvonot va rastaniho), ki ehtiyojoti amalii tib, kishovarzi va sanoat ba miyon ovard (tahiyai doru va khushbuiho, dabbogii pust va rangubori mato, nonpazi, panirpazi, sharobkashi, pivopazi va g.), aloqamand meboshad. Oid ba tabdili khimiyavii moddahoi gunoguni biologi tadrijan malumoti ziyod jam omadand. Ilmi tib ba inkishofi tadqiqoti khimiyavi oid ba olami nabotot va hayvonot tasiri kalon rasond. Dar ibt. a. 16 Teofrast Parasels talimotero asosnok namud, ki muvofiqi on paydoishi bemoriho ba ikhtiloli jarayoni khimiyavii organizmi bemor vobasta ast va baroi muolijai onho istemoli moddahoi khimiyavi zarurand. Minbad dukhturon va dorusozon B.-ro bo kashfiyoti sershumor gani gardonidand. Tadrijan B. misli digar ilmho ba sohahoi alohida judo shuda, badtar B.-i odam va hayvonot, B.-i rastani, B.-i mikrobho (mikroorganizmho), B.-i virusho, inchunin B.-i tekhniki (korkardi ashyoi khomi hayvonot va rastani, tayyor kardani khurokvori, doruhoi vitamindor va gormoni, antibiotikho va g.) ba vujud omadand.
Ba chandin ilmhoi makhsus judo shudani B.- ro zarurati omuzishi jarayoni hayot dar poyahoi gunoguni sokhti materiyai zinda taqozo mekard. Hamin tavr, B.-i evolyutsioni va muqoisavi (jarayoni biokhimiyavii organizmhoi zindaro dar marhalahoi gunoguni inkishof meomuzad), genetikai biokhimiyavi va biologiyai molekulavi (sokht va vazifai safedaho, kislotahoi nukleat, inchunin mavqei onhoro dar jarayoni hayot meomuzad), B.-i vitaminho, gormonho, fermentho, B.-i radiatsioni, B.-i kvanti va g. tashakkul yoftaand. Talaboti tibbi kliniki B.-i klinikiro ba vujud ovard, ki vazifai asosii on tashkhisi bemorihoi gunogun va omuzishi tarzi paydoishi onho meboshad.
A. 20 dar sohai ilmhoi biologi usulhoi tadqiqi ilmhoi daqiq (khimiya, fizika, matematika, kristallografiya va g.) roh yoftand va in dastovardhoi nazarrasi B. gasht. Muayyan shud, ki tashkilahoi ultrastrukturii hujayrahoi zinda vazifai makhsusi biokhimiyaviro ijro mekunand. CHunonchi, dar yadroi hujayra nukleotidho, kislotahoi nukleat va nukleoproteidho (payvastahoe, ki akhbori irsiro intiqol mekunand) hosil meshavand. Badtar sokhti safeda va dar safedahoi gunogun murattab joy giriftani aminokislotaho muayyan gasht; az s. 1916 in jonib ziyoda az 200 navi safedayu gormonho hosil karda shudand. Az jumla, gormoni safedadori insulin ba dast ovarda shud, ki bisyor bemoroni giriftori diabeti qandro az marg najot dod.
Bahri peshgiri va muolijai bemorihoi odam sarivaqt guzarondani tashkhisi biokhimiyavi ahamiyati kalon dorad. Solhoi okhir dar sohai B.-i kliniki usulhoi gunoguni tajili va asbobu anjomi avtomati istifoda meshavand. Onho imkon medihand, ki dar hajmi kami mavodi tadqiqi (mas., dar yak chakra khun) moddahoi gunogunro zud muayyan va bazan bemoriro tashkhis kunand.
Ayni hol ba muayyan kardani faoliyati fermenthoi zardobi khun, peshob, inchunin hujayrahoi alohida (leykositho, eritrositho, fibroplastho va g.) ahamiyati kalon doda meshavad.
Kafedrai B.-i DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino, ki az s. 1940 faoliyat dorad, imruz ba markazi kaloni korhoi ilmiyu tadqiqoti tabdil yoftaast. Dar on roje ba mutod gashtani organizmi odam va hayvonot ba sharoiti balandkuh pajuhishhoi jolib anjom doda shudand. Malum gasht, ki tagyirot dar mubodilai moddahoi jigar va mayna hangomi gipoksiyai shadid va muzmin binobar digargunihoi tarkibi lipidii membrana, faol shudani baze sistemahoi fermenti va oksid gashtani lipidho ba amal meoyad. Pajuhishho dar in samt idoma dorand.
Ad.: Biokhimiya (kitobi darsi), D., 1992; Klinicheskaya biokhimiya (zeri tahriri V.A. Tkachuk), M., 2004; Biokhimiya (zeri tahriri E.S. Severin), M., 2005; YAkubova M.M., Biokhimiya, D., 2010.

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