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BEZARARGARDONII SANITARi

sanitariyaBEZARARGARDONII SANITARi, majmui tadbirhoest, ki baroi az badani odamon, sarulibos va ashyoi shakhsii onho nest kardani angezandai bemorihoi siroyati va mavodi ba salomati zararnok ravona shudaand. Tadbirhoi mazkur shustushui odamon, mahvi hasharot (shabushk), dezinfeksiyai libos va jihozi shakhsiro darbar megirand. Agar B. s. bo maqsadi barham dodani manbai bemorihoi siroyati guzaronida shavad, on goh manzile, ki dar on odamon istiqomat doshtand, dezinfeksiya yo dezinseksiya karda meshavad.
B. s.-ro avvalin bor dar davrai Jangi yakumi jahon bar ziddi bemorii tif va shabushzanii odamon istifoda burdand. Minbad B. s. bar ziddi baze bemorihoi digari siroyati, inchunin hangomi girdihamoii odamon (dar rohhoi kaloni naqliyot, dar mahalhoe, ki ofati tabii ruy dodaast va g.) ba sifati tadbiri peshgirii sanitari korbast shudaast. Dar solhoi Jangi Buzurgi Vatani istifodai B. s. toraft beshtar gasht. Barobari taraqqiyoti sanoati khimiya va atom B. s.-ro baroi az badani odam va libosi u dur kardani moddahoi zararnoki khimiyavi va radioaktiv niz istifoda meburdagi shudand.
Hangomi B. s. shustushui odamonro az rui tartibi muayyan meguzaronand. Baroi in onho avval ba joi liboskashi, soni ba joi shustushuy, bad ba khonai libospushi meguzarand; dar yak vaqt libosi onho dar kamerai gandzudoi bezarar gardonida meshavad.
SHakhsone, ki B. s.-ro meguzarand, libosashonro dar joi liboskashi barovarda, az rui nishondodi kormandoni hammom ba tartib tah mekunand va baroi bezarar gardonidan mesuporand. Bad sobunu dastmol girifta, ba joi shustushuy meguzarand. SHakhsoni shabushzada va odamone, ki az manbai bemorii tif omadaand, to shustushuy mui sar (dar surati zaruri muyi zeri bagal va zeri nof)-ro niz metaroshand. SHustushuy, odatan, 15 – 20 daqiqa davom mekunad. Bad ba khonai libospushi guzashta, libosi bezarar gardidaro mepushand va az baromadgohi alohidai hammom meravand.
Dar sharoiti janghoi zamoni hozira niz B. s. az tadbirhoi asosii barham dodani oqibati az tarafi dushman kor farmudani vasoiti qatli om mahsub meshavad. Du tarzi B. s. – nopurra va purra malum ast. B. s.-i nopurraro favran dar joi zarbarasondai dushman meguzaronand. Mohiyati B. s.-i nopurra (dar mavridi vasoiti qatli omro istifoda burdani dushman) az on iborat ast, ki favran ba joyhoi uryoni badan (ruy, gardan, dast va g.) moei ziddikhimiyavii paketi shakhsiro memoland; boqimondai moe ba qismhoi beshtar zarardidai libos molida meshavad. B. s.-i nopurraro (hangomi bo moddahoi radioaktiv oluda shudan) az toza kardani sarulibos va poyafzol sar mekunand (nig. Dezaktivatsiya). Bad, agar obi toza boshad, joyhoi uryoni badanro shusta, dahonro mechayqonand, chashm, surokhii biniro meshuyand; agar ob naboshad, ba joyhoi uryoni badan moei ziddikhimiyavii paketi shakhsiro memoland.
B. s.-i nopurra baroi komilan barham dodan yo dur kardani ziyoni vasoiti qatli om qodir nest, binobar in minbad zarardidagon B. s.-i purraro meguzarand. Bo in maqsad onho pesh az ba khonai liboskashi daromadan, libosi ruy, pushoki muhofiz va yaroqashonro dar joi makhsus meguzorand. Agar onho protivogaz va respirator doshta boshand, baroi on ki angezandai bemoriho va moddahoi zararnok bo gardu chang ba rohi nafas dokhil nashavand, onhoro az hama okhir, dar khonai libosbarori mekashand. Dar shustushuykhona az mahlulhoi bezarargardon istifoda burda meshavand.
Hama shakhsone, ki bo moddahoi radioaktiv oluda shudaand, badi B. s. az nazorati dozimetri meguzarand. Onhoe, ki bo moddahoi radioktiv az meyor ziyodtar oluda gashtaand, baroi B. s.-i takrori firistoda meshavand.
B. s.-i purraro dar sharoiti khona (mas., dar vanna) niz guzaronidan mumkin ast. Dar in mavrid libos va poyafzolro ba khaltai polietileni andokhta, ba punkti sanitari mesuporand.
Samarai B. s. ba harchi zudtar (badi ba vujud omadani khatari tasiri aslihai qatli om), khususan bodiqqat va jiddi guzaronidani on vobasta ast.

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