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ALKALOIDHO

alkoloidhoALKALOIDHO (az lot. alkali – ishqor va yun. oidos – monand), nave az payvasthoi organikii nitrogendori naboti, ki khosiyati asoshoro doshta, tasiri fiziologi merasonand. Dar rastani kashf shudani A. ahamiyati kalon dosht, zero to avv. a. 19 gumon meraft, ki moddahoi naboti nitrogen nadorand. Soli 1803 A.-i afyun dar na- mudi omekhtai moddahoi kristalli kashf shud. Soli 1806 az on alkaloidi morfinro judo kardand. Dar a. 19 strikhnin, khinin, kofein, atropin, efedrin va g. kashf shu- dand. Felan taqr. 10 haz. navi A. ma- lum ast.
A. sokhti murakkab va aksar dar mole- kulaashon geterosikl dorand. Voyai ziyodi onho zahr ast. A. dar rastani, odatan, dar namudi namaki kislotahoi organiki, mas., kislotahoi oksalat, seb, sharob, limu va g. mavjudand. Beshtar rastanihoi dupallagi A. dorand. Baroi judo kardani omekhtai A. az usulhoi khromatografiya va tahlili khimiyavi istifoda mebarand. Bisyor A. moddahoi kristallii berang va tabiatan payvasthoi geterosikli meboshand. A.-i soda az 10 va A.-i murakkab taqr. az 50 atomi karbon iboratand. A. bo kislotaho (mas., kislotahoi sulfat, khlorid, salitsilat, oksalat va g.) namak hosil mekunand. Muqarrar kardani sokhti A. dushvor ast. Bahri in tabiati guruhero, ki atomhoi oksigen va nitrogen dorad, muayyan meso- zand va molekularo to ba porchahoi sokhta- shon malum tajziya menamoyand. Durustii tasavvurot oid ba sokhti A. bo rohi sintez amali gardonda meshavad. Sokhtori chunin moddahoi murakkab, mas., morfin, strikh- nin va rezerpin muayyan karda shudaast.
Gunogunii sokhti A. tasnifi onhoro dushvor mesozad. Dar in mavrid bisyor vaqt qismi nitrogendori molekulai A.-ro chun alomati asosi ba etibor megirand (mas., hosilai pirrolidin, piridin, khinomen indol va g.). Dar rastani beshtar A.-i sokh- tashon bo ham nazdik mavjudand, binobar in, moddahoero, ki sokhtashon muqarrar nashudaast, az rui guruhi rastani tasnif mekunand, mas., A.-i avranj, A.-i afyun va g. Dar yak rastani, odatan, chand A.-i sokhto- rashon monand vomekhurand. Bisyor A. (mas., kofein, teobromin, efedrin, arekolin va g.)-ro bo rohi sintez hosil mekunand.
Dar baze mavridho A.-i tabiii chudokardaro ba doru tabdil medihand. Bazei onho ba silsilai asab, ragho, mu- shak va g. tasiri intikhobi merasonand. Mas., strikhnin va kofein sistemai mar- kazii asabro meangezad, morfin va sko- polamin onro orom mesozad; khinin ange- zandai varacharo mahv mekunad; apomor- fin khosiyati qayovari dorad; teobromin tasiri peshobroni zohir menamoyad. Dar tib asosan A.-i kholis, namak va hosilahoi onho istifoda meshavand. Doruhoi A.-i zahrnok (atropin, khinin, papaverin, morfin, kodein, strikhnin, kofein va g.) boyad dar chevoni alohida qufl karda (ruykhati A
– doruhoi zahrnoki rastanigi) yo az digar doruho chudo nigoh doshta shavand (ruykhati B – doruhoi sakhttasir). Dar surati bena- zorat istifoda burdani doruhoi alkalo- iddor organizm zahrolud meshavad.
Ad.: Orekhov A.P., Himiya alkaloidov, M., 1955; Nesmeyanov A.N., Nesmeyanov N.A., Nachalo organicheskoy khimii, t. 2, M., 1970; YUnu- sov S.YU., Alkaloidi, Tashkent, 1981; Soko- lov S.YA., Zamotaev I.P., Spravochnik po lekarstvennim rasteniyam. Fitoterapiya, M., 1988; Mashkovskiy M.D., Lekarstvennie sredstva, M., 2001. M. Samiev.

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