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Zakhirashavi va istifodabarii moddaho

YAk qismi muayyani (mikdori barziyodi) moddahoi organiki qand, ohar, safeda, ravgan dar boftaho va uzvhoi makhsus gun va zakhira meshavad. Masalan, ohar — moddai zakhiravii az hama mamultarin meboshad. Ohar dar rastaniho, khususan dar hujay- rahoi berangi boftai zakhiravi dar namudi donachaho gun meshavad (lundai kartoshka). Gunshavi yo zakhirashavii ohar odatan dar reshaho va poyaho (khususan dar uzvhoi pirshuda), uzvhoi shakldigar- karda (dar reshamevaho, ki boftahoi zakhirakunandaashon ziyodand), qismi poyagii reshapoya va lundaho, dar barghoi pulakchamonandi piyozakho va inchunin dar mevapardahoi purmagz, endospermi tukhm va tukhmpallahoi janin beshtar mushohida karda meshavad .

Safedaho (moddahoi murakkabi organikii nitrogendor) odatan dar namudi donachahoi safedagi (dar lubiyo, nakhud, gandum, javdor, jav va gayraho), ravgan boshad, dar shakli qatrahoi ravgan (oftob- parast, zagir, chigit va gayraho) beshtar dar tukhmu doni rastaniho zakhira meshavand.

Moddahoi qandi boshand, beshtar dar shirai hujayrai reshame- vahoi serob (sabzi, lablabu), barg (karam), poya (nayshakar), piyo- zak (piyoz), mevahoi tar (angur, tarbuz, kharbuza va digarho) bo miqdori ziyod zakhira meshavand.

In moddahoro rastaniho baroi on zakhira mekunand, ki dar lah- zahoi baroi sabzishu rushdi uzvu boftahoi (khususan, baroi az mugjaho hosil shudani poyahoi nav) lozimi va baroi gizogirii nasli javonashon, ki kholo ba zindagii mustaqilona naguzashtaand, istifoda barand. Baroi in avvalo in moddahoi zakhiravi to moddahoi sodda tajziya (vayron) meshavand. Sipas, dar navbati khud in moddaho dar uzvi javoni sabzidaistoda baroi ba vujud ovardani hujayraho va boftakhoi nav ba nav sarf megardand.

SHumo khub medoned, ki inson ba sifati gizo az moddakhoi zakhira- vii rastaniho vase istifoda mebarad. Rastanihoi mazru boshand, nisbat ba rastanihoi khudruy ba mikdori ziyod (az on mikdore, ki baroi onho kifoya ast) moddahoi zakhiraviro dar uzvhoi zakhirakunandaashon gun mekunand. Binobar on odamon dar davomi asrhoi ziyod usulkhoi gunoguni navofariro istifoda burda, navhoi sermahsul va bosifati rastanihoi kishovarziro ba vuchud ovardaand. Navhoi bavujudovardashuda az jihati kalonii meva, sermagzi, khushlazzati, serravganiyu sersafedagi, ziyodohardori, shirini va bisyor digar khususiyathoi jolibashon ba khud hamto nadorand.

  1. Dar uzvhoi zakhiravii rastaniho kadom moddahoi organiki zakhira meshavand?
  2. Moddahoi zakhiravi beshtar dar kadom uzvhoi rastaniho gun meshavand?
  3. Safeda va ravgan dar kadom namud dar tukhmu doni rastaniho zakhira meshavand?
  4. CHaro rastaniho dar uzvhoi gunogunashon moddahoi organikiro zakhira mekunand?
  5. Rastanihoi mazru az rastanihoi khudruy chi bartari dorand?
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