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ZIQI NAFAS

ziki-nafasZIQI NAFAS (Asthma bronchiale), bemorii muzminest, ki dar natijai nihoyat tang shudani bronkhho binobar tashannuji mushakhoi qasabai shush, obvarami luobpardai shush, bo balgami galiz pur shudani naychahoi bronkhho ba amal meoyad.
Z. n. bemorii allergi buda, ba on odamoni nisbati baze moddahoi khimiyavi yo omilhoi fiziki hassos giriftor meshavand. Hassosiyati barziyod mumkin zuhuroti irsiyu anatomii organizm boshad yo zeri tasiri allergen (nig. Allergiya) va chande omilhoi nomusoid (khunuk khurdan, nihoyat khasta shudan, amrozi muzmini iltihobi va g.) ba vujud oyad. Z. n. siroyatiyu allergi va gayrisiroyatiyu allergi meshavand.
Bakteriyaho, virusho va dig. mikrobhoe, ki ba organizm tasir rasonida, onro tagyir medihand, sababgori asosii Z. n.-i siroyatiyu allergi meboshand. Z. n. beshtar dar zaminai amrozi bardavom (bronkhit, bronkhoektazho, gazaki shush) yo illati javfhoi ilovagii bini (frontit, gaymorit) inkishof meyobad. Zero moddahoe, ki dar asnoi iltihob ba vujud meoyand, khosiyati allergenhoro dorand.
Z. n.-i gayrisiroyati az allergenhoi naboti yo hayvonot paydo meshavad. Pashm, par, mui asp, pulakchahoi mohi va g. az qabili allergenhoi hayvonot meboshand. Baze hasharot (takhtakana, nonkhurak, shabparakho va g.) niz metavonand boisi hassosii barziyod shavand. Gardi gul chun allergen mavqei makhsus dorad (nig. Pollinoz). Huruji Z. n.-e, ki sababgorash allergenhoi naboti meboshand, dar mavsimi muayyani sol (az mohi aprel to iyul, ki ayyomi gulshukufti rastanihost) ba amal meoyad. CHangi khona, gizoi khushki mohihoi akvarium, mahsuloti khurokvori (tukhm, kharchang, shokolad, zanburug, tuti zamini, aflesun va g.), baze doruho niz sababgori Z. n. meshavand.
Dar paydoishi Z. n. khususiyathoi fardii asabiya va sistemai endokrini (gadudhoi usorai dokhili) mavqei kalon dorand. Holathoe ham malumand, ki khuruji Z. n. dar kasoni ba bui guli sadbarg hassos hatto az didani guli sunii sadbarg niz ruy medihad. Ba khuruji Z. n. emotsiyaho (ehsosot)-i nokhush niz sabab shuda metavonand. Ba inkishofu jarayoni Z. n. omilhoi iqlim ham tasir merasonand. Dar faslhoi bahor va tiramoh bemori beshtar avj megirad; hangomi shamol yo yakbora tagyir yoftani obu havo va afzudani rutubat, ahvoli bemoron bad meshavad. Gayr az in, rutubati barziyod ba avj giriftani amrozi muzmini siroyatii bronkhho va shush musoidat karda, jarayoni Z. n.-ro vaznin megardonad.
Zuhuroti asosii Z. n. khuruji nafastangi ast. Odatan, nafastangi nogahon, beshtar shabona (vaqti khob) sar meshavad. Bemor az narasidani havo aziyat mekashad. Nafaskashi dushvoru nafasbarori bardavom gashta, khir-khiri hushtakmonand shunida meshavad. Baroi oson shudani nafaskashi bemor majbur ast, ki rost istad yo bo dast ba kanori kat takya karda nishinad. Badi chand vaqt nafaskashi orom gashta, balgam ikhroj meshavad, khuruji bemori bartaraf megardad. Huruji Z. n. az chand daqiqa to chand soat va hatto ruzho davom mekunad. In qabil khurujhoi bardavom yo zud-zud takroryobandaro holati asmatiki menomand. Agar khuruji bemori goh-goh takror shavad, boftahoi shush tagyir nameyoband, ammo badi inkishofi illat va zud-zud ruy dodani khuruj, mumkin emfizemai shush, ikhtiloli faoliyati dil ba vujud oyad. Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki nafastangi nafaqat ba Z. n., balki ba dig. bemoriho ham metavonad vobasta boshad. Dar bisyor mavridho dukhtur hangomi muoinai bemor khususiyat va paydoishi nafastangiro muqarrar mekunad va agar lozim oyad, baroi tashkhis az usulhoi laboratori istifoda mebarad.
Hususiyati ziqi nafas dar kudakon. Dar kudakon beshtar Z. n.-i marbut ba gardi changi khona, gardi gul, pashmi hayvonot, khurokvori, doru va g. paydo meshavad. Bisyor vaqt dar onho allergiyai siroyati niz ba mushohida merasad, ki dar natija Z. n.-i omekhta inkishof meyobad. Bemori beshtar dar kudakone duchor meoyad, ki bo vazni ziyod, gadudi jogari kalon va ikhtiloli immuniteti hujayravi ba dunyo omadaand. Huruji avvalini Z. n. dar kudakon, odatan, dar 2 – 5-solagi ba nazar merasad. Sababi bevositai khuruji Z. n. dar onho tamos bo allergen, bemorihoi shadidi uzvhoi nafas, angina, osebhoi jismoniyu ravoni, bazan moyaguzaroni va tazriqi gamma-globulin meboshand.
Qabl az khuruji Z. n. dar kudakon sustiyu beholati yo, baraks, serhayajoni va injiqi rukh menamoyad, onho az gizo ru metoband, rangi pust meparad, gavharaki chashm vase shuda gulu mekhorad; surfai khirrosi ba vujud omada, obi bini meshorad. Vale bo vujudi in hama rohi nafas boz ast. CHunin holat 10 – 30 daq., bazan 1 – 2 shaboruz davom karda, bad bemori khuruj meyobad. Goho in alomatho raf shuda, kudak durust meshavad.
Hangomi khuruji bemori kudakon betoqat shuda, khudro ba har taraf mepartoyand, nafaskashi tez ast. Bazan harorati badan niz baland meshavad. Alomathoi bolini Z. n. dar kudakoni sinni bolotar misli kalonsolon meboshand. Dar davrai khuruji bemori kudakon az obu gizo ru metoband, araq mekunand, kharobu logar meshavand, rangi pust parida, atrofi chashm siyoh megardad. Vazi kudak tadrijan behtar va nafaskashi ozod meshavad, hangomi surfidan balgam meoyad. Badi khotimai khuruji bemori salomatii kudak khub shavad ham, to der u sustu beholat memonad, sar dard mekunad.
Baroi tabobatu peshgirii Z. n. har guna doruho (qurs, aerozolho, tazriq)-ro kor mefarmoyand. Intikhobi in yo on vositayu usuli muolija vazifai dukhtur buda, u jihathoi fardii bemorro ba nazar megirad. Vositahoi dardkash (bankahoi tibbi, khardalkogaz, vannahoi garm baroi dastu po va g.)-ro niz istifoda mebarand. Be nazorati dukhtur khudro bo doruhoi ziddi Z. n. tabobat kardan, nafaqat natijai dilkhoh namedihad, balki oqibati nokhush ham dorad. Maqsadi tabobati Z. n. nafaqat bartarf namudani nafastangi, balki ba qadri imkon muayyan kardani sababi bemori va oshkor namudani omilhoe niz meboshad, ki boisi nafastangi gashtaand. Aksar vaqt manbai siroyate, ki tabobati makhsusro taqozo dorad, ba Z. n. musoidat mekunad. Dar asnoi malum budani allergeni gayrisiroyati boyad tavre raftor kard, ki on ba organizm roh nayobad (bo in maqsad hatto joi koru zistro tagyir medihand); agar in tadbir imkonnopazir boshad, pas tavassuti doruhoi makhsus hassosiyatro nisbat ba allergen sust mekunand. Baroi az qasabai shush dur kardani balgam, sayrugasht dar havoi toza yo dar beshai darakhtoni suzanbarg, istemoli obhoi minerali (mas., SHambari, Borjomi) tavsiya meshavand. Varzishi shifoi ba aksar bemoron foidabakhsh ast (ba sharte, ki dili bemor illati jiddi nadoshta boshad). Varzish havo giriftani shushro behtar namuda, insidod (basta shudan)-i bronkhhoro bartaraf mekunad, nafas barovardanro oson megardonad. Bo varzishi shifoi muntazam va muvofiqi maslihati dukhtur mashgul shudan lozim ast. Mashqhoi makhsusi nafasgiri va dar yak vaqt talaffuzi baze ovozho baroi idora kardani nafaskashi yori merasonand. Avvalo hamsadoho (s, z, sh), sipas sadonokho (u, e, i, a)-ro talaffuz mekunand; minbad yake az hamsadohoyu yake az sadonokhoro pasi ham talaffuz namuda, tadrijan baroi mashq vaqtro ziyodtar meguzaronand. Muhimash in ast, ki bemor boyad ba tavassuti bini nafas giriftanu nafas barovardanro omuzad, dar asnoi nafas barovardan, shikamro ba darun kashad. Mashguliyatro dar khonai havoyash toza va mavridi garm budani havo dar rui havli meguzaronand.
Dar davrai remissiya (muvaqqat yo der goh ruy nadodani khuruji bemori) bo varzish – turizm, zavraqroni, lijaroni, tennis va g. mashgul shudan ahamiyati kalon dorad (vale na beshtar az meyor). Tabobati Z. n. beshtar dar sanatoriyayu kurortho surat megirad, ammo to chi andoza natijabakhsh budani onro peshgui kardan gayriimkon ast, chunki vasoiti muolijavii kurortho (iqlim va g.) ba har bemor har khel tasir merasonad. Baroi tabobati Z. n. kurorthoi iqlimashon mutadilu rutubati havoyashon kam behtar meboshad. Hojaobigarm yagona kurortest, ki bodu havo va dig. omilhoi shifobakhshi on baroi bemoroni Z. n. khele muvofiq ast.

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