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ZAHROLUDi

zahroludiZAHROLUDi (Intoxicatio), bemorie, ki az tasiri zahrho ba vujud meoyad. Z.-i shadid dar natijai ba organizmi odam roh yoftani moddahoi khimiyavii tasirashon gunogun sar mezanad. Dar natijai on funksiyahoi hayotan muhimmi organizm khalaldor shuda, ba hayot khavfi jiddi tahdid mekunad. Az tajriba malum ast, ki istemoli aksar doruhoi khimiyavi faoliyati binobar bemoriho khalalyoftai organizmro barqaror mekunand, yane khosiyati muolijavi dorand. Dar ayni hol istemoli ziyodi chunin doruho bisyor vaqt zahrnok ast. Hamin tavr, yak moddai khimiyavi vobasta ba tasir metavonad ham zahr boshad va ham doru. In khosiyati payvasthoi khimiyavi chun YAnusi duruya (khudoi yunonihoi qadim) yagonagii du quvvai muqobil – neki va badi, zindagi va margro tajassum mekunad.
Vobasta ba vaziyate, ki zahroludii shadidro ba amal meovarad, Z. tasodufi va garaznok meshavad. Z.-i tasodufi bisyor ba mushohida merasad. Mas., az meyor ziyod istemol kardani doruvor (khususan hangomi khudtabobat), spirti etil va araqhoi dasti (nig. Masti), sahvan ba joi doru yo mashrubot istemol namudani moddahoi khimiyavi va g. Z.-i garaznok kamtar vomekhurad, lekin on khele vaznin meguzarad, chunki dar in holatho, odatan, peshaki donista istoda, meyori ziyodi zahri baroi khudkushi tainshudaro istemol mekunand. In holat Z.-i suisidi nom dorad va az tarafi odamoni giriftori bemorii ruhi yo ashkhosi hardamkhayol sodir megardad.
Z.-i shadid maishi va istehsoli meshavad. Z.-i maishi beshtar az moddahoi gunoguni khimiyavi ruy medihand, ki ba sifati doru va vositahoi khimiyai maishi dar khona nigoh doshta meshavand.
Ba tufayli dastovardhoi gigienai sanoat va nazorati tibbi Z.-i istehsoli dar korkhonahoi khimiyavi va laboratoriyaho, ki dar natijai sadama va rioya nakardani tekhnikai bekhatari ba amal meomad, tadrijan kam shudaast.
Z.-i shadid az jihati tarzi ba organizm roh yoftani moddahoi zahrnok niz farq mekunad. Beshtar Z.-i gizoi mamul ast, ki on dar natijai az dahon ba rohi hozima va sipas ba qadri hol ba khun vorid shudani zahr sar mezanad. Zahr bo rohi nafas (hangomi nafasgirii bugi moddahoi zahrnok), tavassuti pust (hangomi vorid shudani zahr ba organizm az pusti uryon), hamchunin az kovokihoi badan (bini, gush, bachadon va g.) niz metavonad dokhil shavad. Va nihoyat, Z. az tazriq, ki dar natijai bevosita ba boftaho yo majroi khun bo shprits guzaronidani mahluli moddahoi zahrnok yo khud hangomi gazidani hasharoti zahrnok yo mor ba amal meoyad.
Moddahoi khimiyavie, ki boisi Z.-i shadid megardand, khele ziyodand: doruvorie, ki bahri muolija istifoda meshavandu miqdori khele ziyodi onho khosiyati zahri dorand; vositahoi khimiyavie, ki dar ruzgor, khojagi, hamchunin bo maqsadi behdoshti shakhsi va kosmetiki kor farmuda meshavand; har guna moddahoi zahrnoke, ki bar ziddi hasharoti zararrason istifoda megardand; mavodi khimiyavi; zahrhoi khimiyai harbi; zahrhoi gunoguni hayvonot va rastaniho, ki odamon baroi tayyor namudani doru kor mefarmoyand.
Tasiri zahrnokii hamai in moddaho ba organizm gunogun ast. Vobasta ba in onho ba zahrhoi angezanda, suzonanda, maddaovar, bugikunanda, khobovar, ikhtiloji va g. taqsim meshavand. Aksariyati onho, sarfi nazar az meyor va tarzi roh yoftanashon ba organizm, doroi tasiri intikhobi meboshand, yane faqat ba hujayraho va boftahoi muayyan zarar merasonand. Vobasta ba in khosiyat zahrho gunogun meshavand: zahrhoi khun, ki asosan ba hujayrahoi khun tasir merasonand (gazi karbon, selitra va g.); zahrhoi asab, ki boisi ikhtiloli hujayrahoi sistemai asabhoi markazi va asabhoi kanori megardand (alkuhul, doruhoi khobovar va g.); zahri gurdayu jigar, ki kori uzvhoi mazkurro kharob mekunand (payvasthoi metallhoi vaznin, zahri baze zanburugho va g.); zahri dil, ki az tasiri on kori dil vayron meshavad (zahri baze rastaniho az guruhi alkaloidho); zahri medayu rudaho (mahluli galizi kislotayu ishqorho).
Gunogunii moddahoi zahri va tarzi tasiri onho ba organizm tashkhis, muolijai sarivaqti va peshgirii Z.-i shadidro dushvor megardonad.
Solhoi okhir masalai Z.-i shadid ba miyon omadaast. Sababi in dar muhiti zist zakhira shudani miqdori ziyodi moddahoi khimiyavi meboshad. Muvofiqi malumoti Sozmoni umumijahonii tandurusti dar mamoliki Evropa az har hazor naf. aholi 1 naf. bo Z.-i shadid ba bemoriston khobonda shuda, beshtar az 1%-i onho memirand. SHumorai umumii odamone, ki az Z.-i shadid favtidaand az shumorai umumii dar falokati naqliyot favtidagon chand marotiba ziyod ast. Afzoishi doimii tedodi Z.-i shadid dar bayni atfol boisi tashvishi tabibon gashtaast.
Sababhoi Z.-i shadidro ba du guruh judo mekunand: subektivi (bevosita ba raftori shakhsi osebdida vobasta ast) va obektivi (mujibi on «vaziyati zahroludi»-i mushakhkhas meboshad). Ammo dar hamai holathoi Z.-i shadid az moddahoi khimiyavi, odatan, tasiri har du sababro mushohida kardan mumkin ast. Dar bayni sababhoi subektivie, ki afzoishi Z.-ro muayyan mesozand, beshubha, nojurihoi hayoti imruza mavqei khos dorand. CHunki onho dar baze odamon istemoli doimii doruhoi taskinbakhshro taqozo mekunand. Afzudani istehsoli vositahoi khimiyavii ruzgor va reklamai harruzai onho niz dar kanor nest. Dar bayni sababhoi subektivii Z.-i shadid suyiistemoli sharob va maroqi nosolim ba istemoli vasoiti mukhaddir (nig. Nashamandi) joi makhsusro ishgol mekunand. Nisfi ziyodi Z.-i tasodufi dar holati masti az alkuhul ruy medihad. Hatari haqiqii Z.-i shadid hangomi khudtabobat ba miyon meoyad. Dar bayni sababhoi subektivii Z. istifodai az meyor ziyodi doruhoi gunogun, hamchunin moddahoi khimiyavi az jonibi zanho (baroi isqoti haml) va mardon (hangomi dar khona muolija namudani mayparasti) mavqei namoyonro ishgol mekunand.
Z.-i kudakon, odatan, az benazorat nigoh doshtani doruho va moddahoi khimiyavi dar khona rukh menamoyad. Kudakoni benazorat (makhsusan sinni 3 – 5-sola) ba joi vitamin va khurokvori metavonand sahvan moddahoi zahrnokro istemol namoyand.
Solhoi okhir Z. az javhari sirko, spirti navshodir (az sababi istifodai farovoni onho dar ruzgor), doruhoi gunogun (asosan khobovar, ki baroi khudtabobat kor mefarmoyand), mashruboti spirti va doruhoi kishovarzi beshtar mushohida meshavad.
Afzoishi Z.-i shadid boisi dastrasi aholi (az jumla kormandoni sohai tib) gardondani malumot dar borai khosiyathoi zahrnoki moddahoi gunoguni khimiyavi, makhsusan doruhoi nav va vositahoi khimiyavii ruzgor, inchunin tashkili yorii tibbii makhsus ba zarardidagon shud. Masalahoi mazkur bomuvaffaqiyat halli khudro meyoband. Dar aksar mamlakathoi jahon markazhoi muolijai Z.-i shadid mavjudand, ki baroi tashkhisi favri (muayyan namudani zahr dar khun, peshob va g.) va tabobati Z. az usulhoi zamonavii muolija («gardai suni», «jigari suni» va g.) istifoda mebarand. Markazhoi nomburda dar sohai toksikologiyai kliniki (ilmi makhsus oid ba zahrshinosi), ki masoili Z.-i shadidro meomuzad, pajuhishho meguzaronand. Inchunin ba hamai dukhturon, ki roje ba masoili tashkhis va muolijai Z.-i shadid muhtoji akhbori ilovagiand, ba tavassuti telefon maslihatu yori medihand.
Haminro boyad dar khotir dosht, ki baze bemoriho, mas., saktai dil, saktai magzi sar (makhsusan dar odamoni solkhurda) metavonand payvasta bo alomathoi Z. (dardi shikam, dilbehuzuri, qay, zaf) jarayon girand. CHunin alomatho hangomi appenditsiti shadid, insidodi rudaho, enterit (nig. Gastroenterokolit) va dig. bemoriho niz mushohida meshavand. SHustani meda va istifodai namakhoi mushil hangomi bemorihoi mazkur mumkin ast orizai noguvor ba vujud orad. Binobar in to omadani dukhtur andeshidani tadbirho oid ba yorii tajili dar on surat joiz ast, ki agar ba Z.-i bemor bovari komil hosil shuda boshad. Usulhoi umumii peshgirii Z.-i shadid chuninand:
1. Hudmuolija – khatarest, ki har shakhs metavonad ikhtiyori khudro ba on giriftor kunad, yane yagon dorui nomalumro khurad yo marhami nomalumro be maslihati dukhtur yo kormandi miyonai tib (tanho bo tavsiyai kormandi tib, na bo maslihati «shinosi dono» yo hamsoyai nazdik) ba pust molad. Boyad dar khotir dosht, ki har dorui khimiyavi metavonad ham davo va ham zahr boshad; sahv kardan dar meyor va tainoti on bazan ba khudkushii garaznok barobar ast.
2. Durust nigoh doshtani doruho dar doruqutti – behtarin «pozahri» zahroludii kudakon az doruhost. Dar doruqutti boyad faqat doruhoi yorii avvalin va baroi muolijai amroze, ki dar ayni hol jarayon dorad, mahfuz boshad. Nigoh doshtani dorui be navishtajot yo dar lifofa va jogahi digar giriftani on tamoman noravost. Hama namudi doruro dar joyi baroi atfol dastnoras, behtarash dar quttihoi qulfdor va durtar az digar khimikathoi ruzgor (moeho va khokahoi shustushu, insektisidho va g.) boyad nigoh dosht.
3. Dasturi istifodai doruhoi khimiyavii ruzgorro qati boyad rioya kard. Onhoro alohida, ba qadri imkon berun az khona va dur az khurokvori nigoh doshtan lozim ast. Har yak doru boyad tamgakogazi aniq doshta boshad. Mahluli vasoiti khimiyavii ruzgor (khususan insektisidhoi moe)-ro baroi peshgirii sahvan nushidani onho ba shishahoi may yo pivo rekhtan man ast.
4. Jamovarii zanburugho va gujummevaho dar jangal, misli raftan ba shikor bo shakhse, ki dar umrash tufangro ba dast nagiriftaast, khatarnok meboshad. Sokinoni shahr, ki zanburugho va gujummevahoi khurdaniro az zahrogin farq namekunand, bo istemoli in rastanihoi noshinos hayoti khud va digaronro zeri khavf meguzorand.
5. Har nav araqi suni zahr ast. Nushidani «spirti nomalum» hatto az dasti kheshi nazdik yo shakhsi shinos tamoman noravost.
6. Agar ba sifati gizoi tayyor shubhae paydo shavad, az istemoli on dast boyad kashid.
7. Rioyai qoidahoi gigienai shakhsi chun qoidahoi harakat dar roh shakhsro az khavfi siroyat yoftan va zahroludi emin medorad.
Ad.: Neotlojnaya pomosh pri ostrikh otravleniyakh, M., 1978; Buyanov V.M., Pervaya medisinskaya pomosh, M., 1986.

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