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Vitaminho

Ahamiyati vitaminho. Vitaminho – moddahoi faoli biologi buda, baroi faoliyati hayotii organizm zarurand. Nabudan yo narasidani vitaminho boisi bemorihoi gunogun megardad.

Nihoyat kam budani onho ba mubodilai moddaho tasiri ziyod merasonad. Vitaminho dar jarayoni paydoishi fermentho ishtirok mekunand. Vitaminho ba organizm tavassuti ozuqae, ki az rastaniho va hayvonot girifta meshavand, dokhil megardand. Baroi osonii kor vitaminhoro bo harfhoi lotinii A, V, S, D va gayra ishora mekunand.

Vitaminkho

Vitamini S dar tarkibi nastaran, qaraqot, karam, pomidor, limu, aflesun, piyoz, sir, kartoshka, dar aksar mevaho dar qismi sabzi rastaniho, khususan dar navdaho vujud dorad. Agar organizm muddati daroz vitamini S-ro nagirad, bemorii singa, ki ba sayyohon va bahrnavardon kayho boz malum ast, khuruj mekunad (rasmi 78). Hangomi chunin bemori pilki dandon khunshor, pardahoi luobii dahon zakhmdor gardida, dandonho junbonak meshavand va meaftand. Dar ayni hol ustukhonho zudshikan gardida, bugumho dard mekunand. Odam kamkhun meshavad va muqobiliyati organizm ba bemorihoi siroyatkunanda yakbora sust meshavad. Kalonsolon boyad bo khurok dar yak shabonaruz 50-78 mg vitamini S istemol namoyand.

Vitamini A asosan dar gizoe, ki az hayvonot girifta meshavad (dar ravgani mohi, ravgani zard (maska), shir, zardii tukhm, jigar, gurda, tukhmi mohi) mavjud ast. Moddahoe, ki dar organizm ba vitamini A tabdil meyoband, dar gizoe, ki az rastani girifta meshavad (sabzi, ispanoq, zardolu, qalamfuri surkh, pomidor) mavjudand. Vitamini A ba sabzishi organizm tasir mekunad. Hangomi dar khurok narasidani on kudakon khub inkishof nameyoband, dandonu muyashon tashakkul nameyobad, shush va rudahoyashon zarar mebinad. Mumkin ast odam ba bemorii shabkuri giriftor shavad. Hamin, ki toriki faro rasid quvvai bosirai chunin bemor zaif megardad.

Odam boyad dar yak shabonaruz takhminan 1 mg vitamini A istemol kunad. Ba guruhi vitamini V yakchand vitaminho masalan: V1, V2, V6, V12 dokhil meshavand. Vitamini V1 ba jarayoni mubodilai karbogidrat tasir merasonad. Vay baroi faoliyati mutadili hamon uzve zarur meboshad, ki dar on mubodilai karbogidrat boshiddattar ast, masalan sistemai asab, dil, mushakho. Vitamini V1 dar donahoi tozanakardai rastanihoi khushador, tukhmi lubiyogiho va zardii tukhm mavjud ast. Miqdori kami on inchunin dar tarkibi ispanoq, karam, piyoz, sabzi va seb vujud dorad. Ba organizm dar yak shabonaruz 2-3 mg vitamini V1 zarur ast. Agar dar khurok vitamini V naboshad, bemorii vaznini beriberi sar mezanad. Peshtar in bemori dar baze jazirahoi uqyonusi Orom pahn shuda bud, chunki khuroki asosii mardumi on jo birinji muqashshari (tozakardashuda) vitamini V nadoshta bud. Faoliyati sistemai asabi odamoni giriftori chunin bemori tagyir meyobad: mushakhoi dastu poyashon kashida meshavad, falaj ba amal meoyad, ki aksar ba marg anjom meyobad.

Vitamini V2 dar galladona, jigar, gusht, shir, tukhm mavjud ast. Agar kalonsolon vitamini V2-ro kam istemol kunand, chashmonashon khira shuda, pardai luobii kovokii dahonashon zarar mebinad.

Vitamini D dar tarkibi ravgani mohi, jigar, zardii tukhmimurg va digar mahsulot mavjud ast. Agar dar khurok vitamini D naboshad, kudakon duchori bemorii chillaashur (rakhit) megardand. Dar holati ba in dard giriftor shudan miqdori namakho dar ustukhon kam meshavad, inkishofi kudak sust shuda, skeletash nodurust tashakkul meyobad. Poyi kudakoni bemorii chillaashur (rakhit) kaj shuda, sar va shikamashon kalon meshavad va qafasi sinaashon tagyir meyobad. Chunin kudakon ba bemorihoi gunogun zud giriftor meshavand.

Bo tasiri oftob dar pusti odamon moddae paydo shuda, ba vitamini D mubaddal megardad. Binobar in pusti kudakoni khurdsol ba tasiri mutadili nuri oftob ehtiyoj dorad. Vitaminho baroi faoliyati hayotguzaroni zarurand, vale miqdori barziyodi onho mumkin ast boisi vayronshavii jiddii organizm gardad. Binobar in vitaminhoi suniro az had ziyod istifoda kardan mumkin nest.

Vitamini E ba vitaminhoi dar ravgan khalshavanda dokhil shuda, dar ravandi afzoishi badan ishtirok mekunad. In vitaminro dar tarkibi afshurahoi gunogun, maysai gandum, ravgani nabotot va dar boftahoi hayvonot didan mumkin ast. Norasoii in vitamin ba afzoish nayoftani hujayrahoi jinsi zanona va mardona sabab meshavad. Inchunin mushakhoi kundalangrakhi skelet oseb mebinand.

Vitamini K ba vitaminhoi dar obhalshavanda dokhil shuda dar jarayoni lakhtashavii khun ishtirok mekunad. In vitaminro dar tarkibi mahsulothoi gizoi didan mumkin ast dar rudai gafsi odam hosil meshavad. Narasidani in vitamin lakhtashavii khunro sust mekunad, ki odam hangomi khunravii ziyod az joyi oseb didai organizm favtidanash mumkin ast.

Vitamini N ba vitaminhoi dar ob halshavanda dokhil shuda baroi dokhilshavii duoksidi karbon dar organizm va kislotahoi gunoguni organiki khizmat mekunad. Vitamini N dar organizm, dar sistemai rudaho az hisobi bakteriyaho hosil meshavad. Narasidani in vitamin ba oseb didan pust, basta shudani ishtiho va khoboludi meorad.

Vitamini RR (kislotai nikotin) dar ob halshavanda, mubodilai karbogidrathoro faol mekunad, dar nafaskashii hujayraho faolona ishtirok mekunad. In vitaminro dar tarkibi gushti hayvonot, mohi didan mumkin ast. Narasidani in vitamin ba vayronshavii jarayoni oksidu-barqarorshavii organizmro ba vujud meorad.

Nigoh doshtani vitaminho dar khurok. Dar tarkibi khuroki mo vitaminho boyad ba miqdori kofi mavjud boshand. Nigoh doshtani vitaminho dar tarkibi khurok ba tarzi taompazi, sharoit va muddati nigohdorii mahsulot vobasta ast. Vitaminhoi guruhi A, V1 va V2 az hama noustuvorand. Muqarrar kardaand, ki vitamini A dar khurokpazi zud vayron meshavad. Sabzii pukhta nisbat ba khomash du barobar kam vitamini A dorad. Hangomi khushkkuni ham vitamini A vayron meshavad.

Harorati baland miqdori vitaminhoi guruhi V-ro kam mekunad. Chunonchi, gusht badi pukhtan az 15 to 60%, mahsuloti az rastani girifta shuda qarib panjyaki vitaminhoi guruhi V-ro talaf medihand. Vitamini S az tasiri harorati baland va havo ba zudi vayron meshavad. Az in ru sabzavotro pesh az pukhtan toza kardan va reza kardan lozim ast. Sabzavotro ba obi jush andokhta, sarpushi degro pushida pukhtan behtar ast. Ba ohan rasidan ham vitamini

S-ro vayron mekunad. Az hamin sabab taomhoi sabzavotdorro dar zarfi sirdor pukhtan foidanoktar ast. Har yak odam boyad har ruz tavassuti khurok hama vitaminhoi zaruriro girad. Zimiston seb, sabzii khom, karam, ravgani zard, tukhm manbai vitaminho shuda metavonand. Gayr az in muvofiqi farmoishi dukhtur ba khurok doruhoi vitaminiro ilova mekunand.

Savolho:

  1. Vitaminho baroi organizm chi ahamiyat dorand?
  2. Hangomi narasidani vitaminhoi A, V, S, D odam ba kadom bemoriho giriftor meshavad?
  3. Vitamini S dar kadom mahsulot vujud dorad?
  4. Oyo ziyod istemol kardani doruhoi vitamindor foidanokand?
  5. Vitaminhoro dar khurok chi khel nigoh doshtan mumkin ast?
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