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Tagyiryobii modahoi gizoi dar meda

Hozima dar rudai borik. Khuroki shavlamonand qism – qism az meda ba joi digari kanali hozima – ruda meguzarad. Dar rudai borik tajziyai minbadai nisbatan oddii moddahoi gizoi davom karda, ba khun va limfa jabbida meshavad.

Darozii rudai borik 3-3,5 m ast. Qismi avvali on rudai duvozdahangushta meboshad. Darozii miyonai on ba 12 bari angusht barobar ast. Ba rudai duvozdahangushta majroi jigar talkhadon va gadudi zeri meda kushoda meshavad.

Fermenthoi shirai gadudhoi zeri meda tanho ba muhiti ishqori tasir karda, ba vositai talkha faol megardand. Dar rudai duvozdahangushta dar zeri tasiri fermenthoi shirai hozima safedaho, charbho va karbogidradho tajziya meshavand.

jigar

Talkharo kalontarin gadudi badani odam – jigar hosil mekunad, ki on charbhoro hazm mekunad. Kashishkhurii mavjmonandi devorhoi ruda (rasmi 71) shavlai khurokro muntazam dar ruda ba harakat medarorad. Shavlai khurok miqdori ziyodi gadudhoi maydatarini pardai luobii rudai borikro ba angezish meorad. Onho shirai ruda judo mekunand. Tavassuti fermenthoi shirai meda moddahoi gizoi to payvastagihoi odditarini dar ob halshavanda, safedaho to ba aminokislotaho, charbhoro to glitserinu Kislotahoi ravgan va karbogidradho to glyukoza tajziya meshavad.

Dar pardai luobii ruda girehhoi ziyodi limfagi mavjud buda, onho yak qismi umumii sistemai hifzkunandai organizm meboshand: Khususan kirmruda (appendiks), ki aksar boisi bemorii appenditsit megardad. Siroyati gunoguni ruda, guludard sababi gazakgiri shuda metavonad.

Appendiks in izofai bo kirm monand buda, dar qismi kurrudai rudai gafs joygir shuda, daroziash ba hisobi miyona 6-8 sm va az in ham ziyodro tashkil mekunad. Gafsiash ba hisobi miyona 0,6-1 sm meboshad. Ahamiyati izofai kirmshakl dar on ast, ki on uzvi muhimi immuni meboshad. Izofai kirmshakl bazan bemor meshavad, ki onro appenditsit menomand.

Nishonahoi on chuninand: paydoshavii dardi sakht dar shikam, baland shudani harorati badan, safed gashtani boloi zabon, qaykuni va gayraho. Agar in nishonaho dar odam paydo shavand, be yagon dudilagi hatman ba dukhtur murojiat kardan zarur ast.

Jabbish. Sathi dokhilii rudai borik doroi patmuyakho ast, ki tavassuti onho mahsuloti tajziyai safedaho, charbho va angishtobho jabbida meshavand. Miqdori khele ziyodi muyakho (2500 muyak dar 1sm) sathi pardai luobii rudai borikro khele vase mekunand. Devori muyak az epiteliyai yakqabata iborat ast. Har yak muyak az ragi khungard va raghoi limfagi iborat ast.

Patmuyakho mahsuloti dar ob halshudai tajziyai moddaho gizoiro jabbida megirad. Jabbish na tanho ravandi tabiii tarovish va difuziyavist, balki inchunin jarayoni murakkabi fiziologi buda, bo rohi az devorhoi muyakho faolona guzaronidani moddaho zuhur meyobad. Muyakho vazifai muhofizatiro ham ijro karda, nameguzorand, ki ba khun va limfa mikroorganizmhoi maskuni ruda dokhil shavand. Dar surati rioya nakardani qoidahoi odditarini gigieni, tavassuti khurok ba ruda aksar mikroorganizmho va zahri onho dokhil meshavand.

Roli muhofizati jigar. Hamai khuni jorishavanda az jigar meguzarad. Dar jigar to 95% moddahoi zararnoki dar rafti hazmi khurok ba vujud omada, bezarar gardonda meshavand.

Pardai luobi

Vazifai rudai gafs. Boqimondahoi khuroki khazmshuda qarib 8-12 soat az rudai gafs meguzarand. Dar in muddat qismi ziyodi ob ba khun jabbida meshavad. Pardai luobi rudai gafs muyakhoro nadorad. Gadudhoi on shira judo mekunand, ki fermenthoyash kam buda, ba miqdori ziyod luob dorad. Luob harakat va berun shudani boqimondahoi khuroki hazmnashudaro oson megardonad.

Dar rudai gafs bakteriyahoi bisyor mavjudand. Onho ba hazmi mutadili khurok zarur buda, bo ishtiroki onho baze vitaminho ba vujud meoyand. Najosati dar rudai gafs paydoshuda ba rudai rost daromada, az on ba berun partofta meshavad.

Savolho:

  1. Moddahoi gizoi dar rudai duvozdahangushta ba chi tagyirot duchor meshavand?
  2. Dar ravandi hazmi khurok shirai gadudi zeri meda kadom naqshro mebozad?
  3. Dar ravandi hazmi charbho talkha kadom naqshro mebozad?
  4. Roli muhofizati jigar dar chist?
  5. Jabbish chist?
  6. Rudai gafs dar hazmi khurok kadom naqshro mebozad?
  7. Noyi hozima chi khel sistemai muhofizati dorad?
  8. Baroi chi appenditsit khavfnok ast?
  9. Nishonahoi appenditsit kadomhoyand?
  10. Hangomi appenditsit chi chora didan zarur ast?
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