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TARZI KORKARDI INFORMATSIYA DAR KOMPYUTER

Tavre ki allakay medonem, kompyuter metavonad, informatsiyai tabiati dilkhohdoshtaro kor karda baroyad. Informatsiya metavonad adadi, matni, grafiki, tasviri, sadoi va gayra boshad. Az tarafi digar mo medonem, ki kompyuter tanho bo kodhoi duyi kor karda metavonad. Pas savole ba miyon meoyad, ki informatsiyai gunogun az tarafi kompyuter chi tavr kor karda baromada meshavad?

Gap dar sari on ast, ki dar kompyuter har guna infor matsiya bo yorii adadho kodguzori karda meshavad. Kompyuter hangomi kor tanho bo kodi informatsiya saru kor dorad.

komputerMo dar hayoti muqarrarii harruzaamon az sistemai hisobbarorie istifoda mebarem, ki onro sistemai dahi meguyand. Har guna adad dar in sistema ba vositai dah raqam 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ifoda karda meshavad. Donistani qonunu qoidahoi ijroi amalho dar in sistema kifoya ast, har guna masalai hayotii dar nazdamon guzoshtashudaro hal namoem. Mo bo in sistema chunon odat kardaem, ki hatto dar borai vujud doshtani digar sistemahoi hisobbarori fikr ham namekunem. Dar asl dar hayot sistemahoi hisobbarorii ziyode mavridi istifoda qaror giriftaand. Bale, hayron nashaved! Hangomi azkhudkunii prinsipi kori kompyuter shumo allakay bo yake az chunin sistemahoi hisobbarori shinos khohed shud.

Aslan protsessori kompyuter informatsiyaero kor karda baromada metavonad, ki on bo yorii signalhoi elektriki ifoda karda shuda boshad. Az nuqtai nazari fizikavi, ba protsessor khele qulay ast, ki informatsiyai qabulnamudaashro bo yorii du vaz (holat) kodguzori namond:

  1. a) shiddati signali elektriki mavjud ast;

i) shiddati signali elektriki mavjud nest.

Agar mo mavjud budani shiddati signali elektrikiro ba vositai raqami 1 va mavjud nabudani onro ba vositai raqami 0 ishorat kunem, on goh malum megardad, ki prot-

sessor har guna informatsiyaro bo yorii tanho du raqam (1 va 0) kodguzori mekardaast. Sistemai hisobbaroriero, ki tanho raqamhoi 0 va 1ro istifoda mebarad, sistemai duyi meguyand.

Insoniyat ba sistemai dahii hisobbarori yaku yakbora naomadaast. Olimon bar on aqidaand, ki asosi guzashtan ba sistemai dahiro, dah angushti dastoni inson tashkil namudaast. SHoyad hamin tavr ham boshad. Lekin biyoed lahzae tasavvur kunem, ki mo dar ikhtiyoramon tanho raqamhoi 0 va 1ro dorem. Oyo mo metavonem, ki hamai adadhoro bo yorii in du raqam ifoda namoem? Albatta metavonem. Masalan, muvofiqati yakchand adadhoi avvalai butuni musbati sistemai dahi va duyi chunin ast:

Dahi 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Dui 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 10000 10001

Tarzi az yak sistemai hisobbarori ba digar sistema guzashtanro, dar misoli adadi dahii 13, ki dar sistemai duyi hamchun 1101 tasvir karda meshavad, nishon medihem:

Dar misol, tasviri adadi dodashuda ba razryadho judo karda shudaast 13 du razryad dorad, 1101 chorto. Protsessori Pentium, ki dar on baroi intiqoli informatsiya 32 sim khizmat merasonad, yaku yakbora metavonad adadi duyii 32razryadaro kor karda baroyad. Azbaski protsessori Intel80286 az 16 sim iborat ast, in protsessor az Pentium dida adadhoro du marotiba susttar intiqol mekunad.

Hangomi omuzishi khotirai kompyuter, mo qayd karda budem, ki razryadhoi duyiro bit va majmui 8bitro bayt nom mebarand. Baroi chenkunii hajmi informatsiyai dar khotirai kompyuter mahfuzbuda boshad, az chenakhoi kalontar kilobayt (Kbayt), megabayt (Mbayt), gigabayt (Gbayt) va gayra istifoda mebarand.

Masalan, disketi 3,5 dyuymagi 1 457 664 bayt informatsiyaro gunjonida metavonad, ki onro pas az yaklukhtkuni 1,4 (13)10=10+3=1101+3100=(1101)2=123+122+021+120=8+4+0+1=(13)10 13 1101

79 Mbayt meguyand. In miqdor ziyod ast yo kam? Agar ba hisob girem, ki yak simvoli matni ba vositai yak bayt ifoda karda meshavad, on goh gufta metavonem, ki dar chunin disk taqriban 1,5 million simvol yo taqriban 100 sahifa kitob megunjad. Mutaassifona, imruz in miqdor informatsiya khele kam shumurda meshavad. Agar in adadro ba informatsiyai shakli ovozdoshta tabdil dihem, on goh dar disket hamagi 17 soniya stereoovozi sifatnokro gunjonidan mumkin astu khalos. Rasmi rangai formati A4 (varaqi chopkunii andozaash 210kh297 mm) az 20 Mbayt ziyodtar hajmro talab menamoyad. Albatta dar in mavridho na az disketho, balki az kompaktdiskho istifoda mebarand, ki gunjoishi onho az 600 Mbayt ziyodtar ast.

Dar diski sakhti kompyuter (vinchester) informatsiyai gunogun programmaho, matni hujjatho, tasvirhoi grafiki, videoklipho, surudu musiqiho va gayraho

mahfuzand, ki hamai onho mahz bo yorii hamon du vazi mantiqi hast yo nest, 1 yo 0, furuzon yo khomush va gayraho kodguzori karda meshavand.

Savolho:

  1. Kadom namudhoi informatsiyaro medoned?
  2. Kompyuter informatsiyaro chi tavr kor karda mebaroyad?
  3. Protsessor informatsiyaro chi guna kodguzori menamoyad?
  4. CHaro protsessori Pentium az protsessori Intel80286 informatsiyaro du marotiba teztar intiqol medihad?
  5. Disketi 3,5 dyuymagi chand bayt informatsiyaro gunjonida metavonad?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Doir ba tarzi korkardi informatsiya dar kompyuter fikratonro dar daftar bayon namoed.
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