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SOIBI TABREZI

YAke az buzurgtarin simohoi adabiyu farhangii sadai XVII, adibi navovaru ejodkori tozakor Mirzo Muhammadalii Soib – farzandi Mirzo Abdurrahim ast, ki bo ejodiyoti ganivu gunogunjiloi khud na tanho ba adabiyoti asri khesh, balki ba jarayoni minbadai adabiyot niz tasiri amiqu daqiq guzoshtaast.

soibi tabreziMirzo Muhammadalii Soib soli 1603 dar shahri Isfahon po ba arsai hasti nihodaast. Az nigohi baromadi ijtimoi Soib az tabaqai bozargononi jomea buda, ajdodi u asosan az Tabrez budaand va dar ruzgori shoh Abbosi Kabir bo tashabbusi in siyosatmador onho bo guruhe az hampeshagonashon ba Isfahon kuchonida shudaand. Dar in bora khudi Soib baze ishoraho niz namudaast:

Soib az khoki poki Tabrez ast,

Hast Sadi gar az gili SHeroz.

Azbaski Soib az tabaqai bozargonon bud, ba u muyassar shudaast, ki hamai ilmhoi jorii zamoni khudro faro bigirad va chunin ham kardaast. Hususan, ilmhoi falsafa, hikmat, «Quron»-u tafsir, hadisu fiqh, sarfu nahv, lugat, adabiyot, kalom, mantiq, qofiya, aruz, bade va gayraro ba khubi omukhtaast.

Ba khusus, dar ilmi khat bahrai komil dosht, zero nazokati in hunarro az ustodu amaki khud-SHamsuddini Tabrezi (SHamsi Soni), ki laqabi SHirinqalam dosht, omukhta budaast. In ast, ki «Hamsa»-i Nizomii Ganjavi, «Kulliyot»-i SHamsi Tabrezi va bisyor asarhi digar ba qalami u kitobat shudaand.

Ba qavli sarchashmaho, guyo muosironi Soib, buzurgon Hakim Rukno, Masehi Koshi, Hakim SHifoi az silki ustodoni Soib dar jodai ilmi sheru adab boshand, vale ahli tahqiq in faktro tasdiq nakardaand, zero khudi Soib meguyad:

Tatabbui[1] sukhani kas nakardaam hargiz,

Kase nakarda ba man fanni sherro talqin.

Ba zuri fikr bar in tarz dast yoftaam,

Sadaf zi obilai dast yoft durri sanin[2].

Soib dar ovoni javoni ba ziyorati Makka va Madina rafta, pas az adoi haj dar vatan bisyor naistoda, muddate dar Kobul istiqomat ikhtiyor mekunad. Soib dar Kobul bo hukmroni on jo Zufarkhon nazdiki paydo menamoyad. Zero hokim dar simoi Soib shakhsi donishmandu ejodkori sohibistedodero darmeyobad. Hudi Zufarkhon niz tabi shoiri doshta, sukhanu sukhanvarro az in sabab khele khub qadrshinosi mekard. In ast, ki Zufarkhon Soibro hatto ustodi khesh mekhonad. Badtar bo dastgirii Zufarkhon Soib ba darbori Sultoni Hind – SHohijahon niz roh meyobad. Az ishorahoi shoir chunin ba mushohida merasad, ki u dar Hinduston shuhrati beandoza paydo karda budaast:

Pesh az in harchand shuhrat dosht dar mulki Iroq,

Sayri mulki Hind Soibro balandovoza kard.

Va yo in ki:

Millahulhamd, ki bud az safari haj,

Soib, Ahdi khud toza ba sultoni Huroson kardam.

YO khud:

Balandnom nagardad kase, ki dar vatan ast,

Zi naqsh soda buvad, to aqiq dar YAman ast.

Dili ramidai mo shikva az vatan dorad,

Aqiqi mo dili purkhune az YAman dorad.

YO khud dar joi digar niz ba in mani chunin ishorae dorad:

SHash sol besh raft, ki az Isfahon ba Hind

Aftodaast tavsani azmi maro safar.

CHun ovozai sherash pahn shud, shoh Abbosi Soni uro ba Isfahon khond va hatto bo unvoni malikushshuaro sazovorash donist. Pas az u shoh Sulaymon niz Soibro qadrshinosi kardaast. Ba qavli tazkiranavisi tojik Muhammadbade Malehoi Samarqandi, Soibi Tabrezi muddate sayri diyori Movarounnahr niz namuda, bo ahli sheru adabi qalamravi mazkur niz oshnoi doshtaast.

Soibi Tabrezi badho khidmati darborro niz istefo doda, besh az dah sol berun az darbor ba ejod pardokhtaast.

Poyoni umri u niz dar Isfahon guzashta, soli 1677 olami foniro padrud guftaast va oromgohash dar Isfahon buda, onro ramzi «Anjumani adabii Soib» guftaand.

Soibi Tabrezi farzandoni kheshro niz dar rohi sukhandustiyu marifatkhohi parvarish namuda, yake az pisaroni shoir, ki shakhsiyati shinokhtae dar qalamravi onruzai diyorash budaast, Mirzo Rahimi Soib nom doshta, dar sheru adab marufu etirofshuda budaast.

Ejodiyoti Soibi Tabrezi

Ejodiyoti Mirzo Muhammadalii Soibi Tabrezi khele boyu rangin va serpahlu buda, joliban dar ejodiyoti u gazal mavqei avvalindaraja dorad. Dar majmu ba qalami Soib 120 hazor bayt taalluq doshta, az on jumla masnavii «Qandahornoma» niz ba u nisbat doda meshavad. Guzashta az on, Soibi Tabrezi ba zaboni turki niz ejod karda budaast.

Muhimtarin khususiyati tarkibi devoni Mirzo Muhammadalii Soib on ast, ki u ashori khudro-lirikai kheshro tabaqabandii ajoib mekunad. YAne ashori ishqii khudro, ki dar on nozu istignoi mashuqa, vasfi zeboihoi vay, husnu jamoli uro vasf kardaast, tahti unvoni «Mirot- ul-jamol» (oinai husn) meorad. Ashore, ki dar on juziyoti husni zohirii mahbuba: chashmu abru, kholu zulf, asbobhoi oroishi misli shonavu oina sitoish karda meshavad, onro «Oroishi nigor» menomad va yo khud sherhoi ba vasoiti shodiyu nishot, khushguzaronii umr, ruzgor, zindagi, yane mayu maygusori, bodapaymoi va gayra bakhshidai khud, in adibi mutafakkir unvoni «Maykhona»-ro guzoshtaast. Inchunin, ashori didaktiki-tarbiyavi va akhloqiro bo mavzuhoi digari hayotiyu falsafi va janbahoi digari ijtimoidoshtaro «Vojib-ul-hifz» nom nihodaast. Boyad guft, ki khudi hamin padida dar tarikhi adabiyoti tojik doir ba murattabsozii devoni ashor nodir buda, dar chunin shakl korbast namudani on khosi Soibi Tabrezi ast. Ba ashori dar bolo zikrgardida bakhshi qasoid ilova shuda, ba in vosita «Kulliyot»-i Soib faroham omadaast.

Mirzo Muhammadalii Soibi Tabrezi na tanho dar navhoi liriki: qasida, gazal, qita, ruboi va g. tabi baland doshtaast, u khususan dar ejodi gazal shuhrati makhsus paydo namudaast. Inchunin, mutafakkir dar ejodi osori manzumi kalonhajm niz tabi baland doshtaast. Az in ru, az u masnavihoi «Qandahornoma» va «Mahmud va Ayoz» niz ba yodgor ast.

Dar in jo yak nuktai digarro mesazad khotirrason sozem, ki Soib az zamoni khesh to ruzgori kununi na tanho dar SHarq, balki dar olam hamchun namoyandai maktabi sabki hindi shuhrat dorad.

To kunun oid ba ruzgoru faoliyati adabii u ba juz qaydu ishorat, maqolaho, muarrifinomaho, bayozhovu tazkirahoi muosiri adabiyoti tojik, inchunin faslhoi judogonai tarikhhoi adabiyoti forsi niz bakhshida shudaand, ki arzishi nihoyat garoni ilmi-tadqiqoti va ommavi dorand. Zero dar onho dar barobari adabiyoti davri shoir, oid ba jarayoni zindagii Soib, pahluhoi ruzgori u, lahzahoi hayoti adib, kamolotu ejodiyoti vay, tarkibi devoni adib, sahmi u dar tahavvuli adabiyoti asrash va tarikhi minbadai adabiyot, khususiyathoi ejodi, mavzuhoi ashor, sabki guftoru shevai bayon, hunari ejodu mahorati sukhanvari, tarzi talifu istedodi sukhangustari va g. malumoti zaruri doda shudaast. 

Mavzuhoi asosii gazaliyotu musammathoi mukhammasi Soibi Tabrezi

Soib yake az shoironi tavonoi gazalsarost, ki dar tahavvuloti janri mazkur sahmi arzanda dorad. U dar rushdi musammati mukhammas niz khele qavipanja meboshad. Musammathoi mukhammashoi u az nigohi mavzu va muhtavo, inchunin az jihati khususiyathoi shakli asosan sunnati boshad ham, dar hunari ejod navovaronaand. CHunonchi, musammati mukhammasi avvali devoni shoir, ki az nigohi unsurhoi shakli niz tozakoriho doshta, khele hunarmandona ejod shudaast va az chahor band iborat ast:

Tului subhi sodiq sar zad az iirohaii mino,

Nasimi ruhravar mevazad az gulshani mino,

Surogi dukhtari raz kardaam az maskani mino,

Agar in bor meomad ba dastam gardani mino,

CHu durdi may nakhoham dosht dasti az gardani mino.

Maro savdoi ishqi u zi khobu khur barovarda,

Saramro munshii taqdir az daftar barovarda,

Baroi kushtani man osmon mahzar barovarda,

Du subhi sodiqand az yak girebon sar barovarda,

YAdi bayzoi soqi bo bayozi gardani mino.

Bandi seyumi musammati mukhammasi mazkur bo nazardoshti mavzu va mazmunu muhtavo ishqi buda, tavam bo mayu soqi idoma mekunad, ki baytero az on metavon zikr namud:

CHu donistam, ki gashtam oshiqu shaydoi betobash,

Ba bedori tavonam did on mahro na dar khobash…

Tozakori dar shakl az on iborat ast, ki dar bandi chahorum takhallusi adib ba haysi radifi murakkab ovarda shudaast. Albatta, in holat ham takidi mano va ham bori goyavi bardoshtani unsuri shakli va nihoyat tamini ohangnoki dar bandro niz dorad:

Ba kufri zulfi jonon toza shud imon maro,

Soib, Nigohi garmi otash mezanad dar jon maro,

Soib, Du misra dilnishin aftod dar devon maro,

Soib, Du chiz aftod khush az bazmi maykhoron maro,

Soib, Zi po aftodani soqi, ba sar galtidani mino.

Musammati mukhammasi mazkur khele hunarmandona ejod shudaast. Holati khele tabiii soqi, jom, mino, oshiq, mahbuba va juziyoti digari marbuti on baso hunarmandona, mushohidakorona va ustodona ba tasvir girifta shudaand. Hadaf visol va khushguzaronii umr buda, bahrabardori az hayot, ganimat donistani ruzgor sharti asosii on donista meshavad. Har chahor bandi musammati mukhammasi zikrshuda dar yak vazn:

Hazaji musammani salim talif shudaast.

Ba hamin tariq, dar devoni shoir 8 musammati mukhammasi az chahor to 7- bandi buda, dar majmu 42 band meboshand va 210 misra yo in ki 105 baytro tashkil medihand. Hamai musammathoi mukhammasi Soib dar mavzuhoi ishqi, mayu boda, bahoru zeboihoi tabiat va gayra ejod shudaand. Az tarafi digar, khele sabuk boshad ham ohanghoi ijtimoiro niz faro giriftaand. Vale ohanghoi khele qavii ijtimoi, ki dar gazaliyoti shoir dida meshavand, dar musammathoi mukhammasi u duchor nameoyand.

CHunonchi, bandi avvali musammati mukhammasi duyumi devonro baroi namuna zikr menamoem:

Gah ba man tegi tagoful on pariru mezanad,

Goham otash bar jigar az tundii khu mezanad,

Ru matob, ay dil, agar teg on jafoju mezanad,

Har ki khudro bar dami shamsheri abru mezanad,

CHun hiloli id bar khurshed pahlu mezanad.

Musammati mukhammasi mazkur doroi panj band (bastu panj misra) buda, ishqist va mahbuba az hama jihat (ham zahiran va ham botinam) bartari dorad. Mahbuba jafoju, berahm, bemehr, purnoz, fokhir, noshikebo, badzabon ast. Oshiq baraks: jafokash, shikebo, sodiq, halim, botavozu, khoksor, khushmuomila, zahmatkash meboshad.

Musammati mukhammasi zikrshuda muraddaf (ridfi soda) va doroi qofiyai muqayyad buda, qofiyaho bo harfi ravi («u») intiho yoftaand. Az nigohi vazn boshad, hamai bandho (5 band) dar yak vazn-Ramali musammani mahzuf (bazan maqsur) ejod shudaand, ki afoili on chunin ast:

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yane: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilun yo foilon.

Umuman, musammathoi mukhammasi Soib az nigohi mavzu, mazmunu muhtavo mahdud buda, asosan az bayoni ishqu isyonhoi qalbii inson, vasfi husnu jamoli mahbuba, sitoishi manaviyoti mashuqa va yakjoya bo holati oshiq dar irtiboti masalahoi mazkur bo avzoi zamon va gayra iborat meboshad. Vale az nigohi hunari ejod dar sathi gazaliyotash ejod shudaand. In jihat baroi muayyan namudani poyai shoirii Soib khele khub musoidat mekunad.

Qismati asosii devoni Soibi Tabreziro gazal faroham ovardaast. Albatta, chun gazal ba zabon girifta meshavad, hatman ishq farorui inson meistad. Mo az in jihat mavzui mazkurro dar ashori Soib khele khub ehsos menamoem. Az silki chunin gazalho metavon gazali zerinro chun namuna zikr namud, ki tobishi khele qavii falsafi niz dorad, chunonchi:

Zihi ruyat bahori zindagoni,

Ba lalat zinda nomi benishoni,

Badomuzi havas oshiq nagardad,

Nameoyad zi gulchin bogboni.

Ba harfi ishq sargarmam, ki boshad

Hayoti sham az otashzaboni.

Du zulfat shohrohi lashkari CHin,

Du chashmat khobgohi notavoni.

Makun chun Hizr bar khud rohro dur,

Ki nazdik ast rohi jonfishoni.

SHarobi kuhnavu yori kuhanro Ganimat don chu ayyomi javoni.

Agar oshiq namebudem, Soib, CHi mekardem bo in zindagoni?!

Az muhtavoi gazali mazkur paydost, ki mavzui markazii on ishq buda, dar on vasfi mahbuba, juziyoti zeboihoi husni u, to andozae dur aftodani oshiq va tadrijan ba hijron giriftor shudanash, shikeboii oshiq, nozi mahbuba, duri justani u az oshiq, vale in hamaro az gardishi ruzgor, az hukmi taqdir, az pechidagihoi zindagi didani oshiq ba nazar merasad.

Dar barobari in hama, to hadde mohiyati andarzi giriftani obrazi lirikii oshiq ba mushohida merasad, ki yake az sifathoi khele nozuki sabki sukhani Soib, khossa uslubi gazalsaroii ust.

Dar ashori Soib ohanghoi tasavvufiyu irfoni niz khele qavist, zero bore sari in masala uro muosirin imtihon niz kardaand. Nafare az shogirdon bore misrai zerinro ba sanjishi ustod mefiristad:

Az shishai be may mai beshisha talab kun,

Soib favran misrai mazkurro chunin komil mesozad:

Haqro zi dili kholi az andesha talab kun.

Az tarafi digar, u dar in joda to ba hadde ba ashori Jaloluddini Balkhi, SHamsuddin Muhammad Hofizi SHerozi, Bobofigonii SHerozi asosan ru ovardaast va chun dar gazal paygiri in toifa ast, malum meshavad, ki tabu saliqai solimu baland dorad va az tarafi digar, irfonu tasavvuf dar gazali u maqomi asosi dorad. CHunonchi, dar in gazaliyoti, ki dar payravii Hofiz ejod shudaast, meguyad:

To manzili man bodiyai bekhabari bud,

Har mavji sarobam ba nazar bolu pare bud.

CHun sarv dar in bog zi ozodagii khesh,

Bore, ki maro bud ba dil, besamari bud.

Z-on ruz, ki shud didai man boz chu iargis,

Avroqi dilam sarfi iareshoiiazari bud.

Bud az dami shamsher dami subhi nishotam,

To javshaii dovudii man bekhabari bud.

Rasvoii sham ast zi iirohaii foius,

Dar parda sukhai guftaii mai pardadari bud.

Az ajz chu shabiam iafitodem dar ii bog,

Aftodagii mo guli ravshaiguhari bud.

YOre, ki gubor az dili gamdidai mo burd,

Bemiiiatu bemuzd iasimi sahari bud.

CHui iartavi khurshed, ki dar oiia uftod,

Az umr hamii bahrai mai jilvagari bud.

Soib, chi tavoi kard ba taklifi azizoi

V-aria tarafi Hoja shudai bebasari bud.

Gazali mazkur, ki khele hunarmandona ejod shudaast, muraddafu muqaffo buda, az nigohi vazn niz jolib ast. gazal dar bahri Hazaji musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf ejod shudaast, ki arkoni on chunin ast:

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yane: mafulu, mafoilu, mafoilu faulun yo mafoil.

Dar gazali mazkur bevafoii dunyo, nazarfirebii on, guzashti umr misli lahzae nigaristan ba oina tabir karda meshavad, ki hadaf hushdor dodan az tagoful varzidan meboshad. Guzashti umri roygon monand ba chizest, ki ba dami shamsher muvojeh megardad va az rahoi digar iloju chorae nadorad va hadafi ejodkor on ast, ki baroi bahra bardoshtan az umr, az zindagi korero metavon intikhob kard, rohero metavon pesh girift, to in ki dar okhir labu angushti hayrat nagazi. YAne in rohi irfon, marifati Haq meboshad.

Dar talimoti irfonii u rohi mazkur rohi kamolot, rohi mukammali va javonmardona ast, ki agar zarra ba on makon khudro rasonad, zarra nakhohad mond va yo shabnam agar komyob shavad, oftob khohad gasht:

To dida mahvi rui tu shud, komyob shud,

SHabiam ba oftob rasad, oftob shud.

YAk chashm khobi talkh jahoi dar bisot dosht,

Oi ham iasibi didai shuri hubob shud.

Az sharmi zulfu rui tu dar iofi ohuvoi

Sad bor mushk khui shudu khui mushki iob shud.

Az raftaii hubob chi iarvost bahrro,

Ishqi turo az ii chi ki olam kharob shud.

To chehrai tu dar araqi sharm guta zad,

Har orzu, ki dar dili man bud, ob shud.

Obi hayoti Hizr giloludi minnat ast.

Hush vaqti tashnae, ki diyori sarob shud.

Soib zi fayzi jozibai ishq oqibat,

Bo oftob zarrai man hamrikob shud.

Agar kame amiqtaru daqiqtar zehn monda shavad, gumon karda meshavad, ki chand bayti avvali gazali mazkur davomi mantiqii gazali bolo boshad. Zero davomi on roh dar in gazal tavzeh doda meshavad.

Gazali bolo ishqi buda, ifodahoi shoir, ohanghoi digari ijtimoi: khobi talkh, bisoti jahon, didai shuri hubob, sharmi zulfu ru, sayri hubob, kharobii olam, araqi sharm, ob shudani orzu, hamrikobi oftob va gayra khele sakht omezish doda shudaast.

Dar tasviri oshiqona, ki vasfi juzviyoti jamoli mahbuba ast, bo juziyothoi purtazodi hayot ba qiyos girifta meshavad.

Vale masoili nohamvori ruzgorro bo pechidagihoi sershumori zindagi ishq muvofiqi murod sokhtaast.

Gazal bo khususiyathoi shakli niz qobili qabul ast: on muraddaf buda, radifi soda (shud) dorad, ki bori goyavi bar uhda dorad va to andozae baroi ohangnoki ba qofiya niz tahkim mebakhshad.

Qofiyahoi gazali bolo muqayyad buda, bo harfi ravi – «b» intiho yoftaand.

Gazal dar bahri Muzorei musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf ejod shudaast, ki afoili on chunin ast:

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yane: mafulu foilotu mafoilu foilun.

Dar barobari mavzuhoi ishqi, mayu musiqi, bahoru vasfi tabiat va gayra dar gazaliyoti Soib mavzuhoi digar: dustiyu rafoqati insonho, dastgirii hamdigar, yori ba darmondagonu bechoragon, himoyai ahli mehnatu fuqaro, vasfi ilmu donish, khiradu aql, marifatu manaviyot, muvofiqati qavlu amal, guftoru kirdor va gayra manzur megardad. Dar barobari in amalu kirdorhoi zisht, qabohati insoni, avomfirebivu mardumozori, tanbaliyu purkhuri, khobu khashm, badtinatiyu siyohdili, muftkhurivu dilozori, takabburu havobalandi, khudkhohivu khudpisandi, gammozivu johili, dunhimmativu pasttinati, mumsikivu bakhili, zolimpeshagivu haqimardumkhuri, jafokorivu beparvoi va gayraro sakht ba zeri tanqid megirad. Ba in mani, ki shakhsi pasthimmat ba sarmanzili maqsud nakhohad rasid, meguyad:

Ba hech jo narasad har ki himmatash past ast,

Pari shikasta khasu khori oshyona shavad.

Hol on ki agar shakhs himmatbalandu sakhovatmand boshad, baroyash dar du olam mushkilie saddi roh nakhohad shud. U meguyad:

Ba himmat metavoni qat kardan osmonhoro,

CHaro bo in chunin teje nihon zeri sipar boshi?

YAke az khususiyathoi khele muhimmi lirikai Soib va khususan, gazalhoi u on ast, ki dar gazal az saromadoni on Jaloluddini Balkhi, Husravi Dehlavi, Sadii SHerozi, Hofizi SHerozi, Urfii SHerozi, Bobo Figonii SHerozi, Nazirivu Fayzi va digaron ba neki yod mekunad, nozukiho va latofatu lahni sukhani onhoro khele khub omukhtaast va az in ru, hamin jihat az balandii tabu tavonoii shoir Soib guvohi medihad.

Ba in mani, donishmandi Hind SHiblii Numoni dar «SHer-ul- ajam» qazovat mekunad, ki: «Soib, agarchi tamomi ustodonu hamasronashro ba adab yod mekarda, lekin ba baze asotidi (ustodhoi) sukhan nihoyat aqidamand budaast. Ziyoda az hama, ba Hoja Hofiz irodat mevarzad va in daleli umdaest bar zavqi salimi u…»

Soibi Tabrezi dar gazalhoi javobiya niz qavipanja ast. Avval in, ki u ba gazaliyoti gazalsaroyoni darajai avvali tarikhi adabiyot dast mezanad va javobiyahoe rui kor meorad, ki agar az gazali avval baland naboshad, past ham nest. Masalan, yake az gazalsaroyoni khele maruf – Bobo Figonii SHerozi gazale dorad bo matlai zerin:

Ba buyat subhdam nolon ba gulgashti chaman raftam,

Nihodam ruy bar rui gulu az kheshtan raftam…

Soibi Tabrezi ba in gazal chunin javobiya dorad:

Ba buyat subhdam giryon chu shabnam dar chaman raftam,

Nihodam ruy bar rui gulu az kheshtan raftam.

«tashbehi shabnam sherro ruh doda va daviro komilan sobit kardaast».

YAke az dalelhoi osori peshiniyon va khossa ashori guzashtagonro khele nozuk donistani Soib on budaast, ki u az ashori buzurgon dar shakli muntakhab bayoze murattab namuda budaast va albatta, baroi on ki in korro somon bidihad, ashoru devon va kulliyoti bisyor saromadoni sukhanro takror ba takror sanjidaastu mutolia namudaast va beshubha, in kor betasiri musbat nest. Zero bayozi murattabnamudai Mirzo Muhammadalii Soib doroi bistu panj hazor bayt buda, besh az hashtsad nafar shoirro faro giriftaast.

Soib az shuaroi guzashta, chunon ki qablan zikr shud, ba SHaykh Sadii SHerozi va makhsusan gazaliyoti u tavajjuhi makhsus dorad, chunonchi: bayti Sadi:

Qiyomat mekuni, Sadi, bad-in shirin sukhan guftan,

Musallam nest tutiro dar ayyomat shakarkhoi.

Az Soib:

Dar in ayyom shud khatmi sukhan bar khomai Soib,

Musallam bud, gar z-in pesh bar Sadi shakarkhoi.

Dar gazaliyoti Soib ishqi bayni insonho, shuru valvalahoi qalbii insoni, hissiyoti latifi odami, nozi oshiqu istinjnoi mahbuba, tarannumi muhabbati poki oshiqon khele mavqe dorad. U dar in joda az peshiniyon ba ashori Sadi beshtar ru meorad. Tafovuti tasviri Soib dar on ast, ki dar in jo joliban baythoi gazal janbai irsolimasali megirand. Masalan, ba in gazali Soibi Tabrezi zehn moned:

Onro, ki chashmi masti tu beikhtiyor kard,

Osudaash zi pursishi ruzi shumor kard.

Rahme nakard bar jigari otashini mo,

Mashshotae, ki lali turo obdor kard.

Nagzosht chashm boz kunad dil gubori chashm,

In gardi shukhchashm chi bo in savor kard.

Az dil mapech ruy, ki shakkarsukhan nashud,

Har tutie, ki pusht bar oinador kard.

Beintizor domani khurshedro girift,

CHun shabnam on ki oinae begubor kard.

Dar komi sher bistari rohat fikandaast,

Har kas, ki khobi amn dar in ruzgor kard…

In on gazal, ki Sadii SHeroz guftaast,

«Muzd on girift, joni barodar, ki kor kard».

Ajoibii bayoni Soib hatto dar lirikai sirf ishqi on ast, ki bayoni u tamoman tobishi ijtimoi megirad va dar devoni Soib sherro, ki dur az ohanghoi ijtimoi boshad, paydo namudan muyassar namegardad. Ishqi u muhabbati andarzomez ast, ki az nohamvorihoi zindagi, pechutobhoi ruzgor, pastivu balandihoi hayot, shebu farozhoi umr, giru dorhoi olami insoni, doroivu nodoroho mansha megirad, sarchashma paydo mekunad. Namunai qazovati bolo gazali zerini Soib metavonad boshad:

Soqi az jome agar khotiri mo shod kunad,

Beh az on ast, ki sad maykada obod kunad.

CHashmi khuftast gizole, ki nadorad shukhi,

Manu on sayd, ki khun dar dili sayyod kunad.

Okhir, ay podshahi husn, chi insof ast in,

Ki dar ayyomi tu ishq in hama bedod kunad.

YOdi ayyomi junun bar sari man borad sang,

Kudakonro chu zi maktab kase ozod kunad.

Motami voqeii Laylivu Majnun dorad,

Har daroe, ki dar in bodiya faryod kunad.

Bar zabonash ba juz az nomi khudo n-oyad hech,

Har ki nazzorai on husni Hudodod kunad.

Handai kabk shavad nolai khunin, Soib,

Besutun yod chu az raftani Farhod kunad.

Gazali mazkur niz ishqi buda, bo qavitarin ohanghoi ijtimoi qobili vuqu shudaast, ki tanho yak ishorai sabuke metavon bar muhtavoi on namud, to hadafi ejodkor oshkortar gardad. Masalan, dar kutohtarin muddat, ki khurshed ba shabnam rukh namud, shabnam bo khurshed guyo mepayvandad. YAne bukhor shuda ba havo meravad. Vale oyinai begubori shabnam hamin maniro dorad, ki shabnam boloi chize aftoda boshad, az sababi sofu pok budanash, rangi hamon predmetro megirad. YAne bo u muqobilu mukholif nest va gayra.

Hususiyathoi shaklii gazal niz khubu jolib ast, zero muraddaf (radifi soda) va muqaffo buda, zero qofiyahoi on muqayyad ast, zero bo ravi (harfi «r») intiho myobad. Bori goyavi dar gazali bolo beshtar bar uhdai radif qaror girifta, hadafi qofiya takidi mano va tamini ohangnoki meboshad. Az nigohi vazn niz gazali zikrshuda jolib ast. Gazal dar bahri Muzorei musammani akhrabi makfufi mahzuf (yo maqsur) ejod shudaast, ki afoili on chunin meboshad:

————————————

yane: mafulu foilotu mafoilu foilon.

Zamoni Soib niz misli asrhoi peshina asri gazal, ayyomi gazal, zamoni gazal buda, rushdu inkishofi navi adabii mazkur qonuniyathoi inkishofi adabiyoti badeiro to andozae muayyan namudaast. Az in ru, yak khususiyati gazali Soib, gazalsaroii u va adabiyoti davroni in shoiri balandpoya az doirai lirikai sirf ishqi berun baromada, ba masalahoi ruzgoru zindagi, ba hayoti jomea payvastani gazal ast va in janba pas az asri XIV, pas az Hoja Hofiz rui kor omadaast. Ba andeshai mo, in tamoil makhsusan tavassuti ashori Soib rivoju ravnaq paydo namuda, boisi tavajjuhi muosironi shoir va ahli qalami minbada niz shudaast.

Besh az in guftan mumkin ast, ki in khususiyati lirikai ishqi, yane dakholatu farogirii illatu nuqsonhoi ruzgor va tanqidi on yake az jidditarin tahavvulot dar tarikhi inkishofi navi adabii gazal bud, ki tavassuti ashori Soib hukmi sunnati kasb kard. CHunonchi:

Emin az dushmani khomush shudan mumkin nest,

Hatari rohravon az sagi gofilgir ast.

YO in ki:

To shavi chashmu charogi in jahon chun oftob,

Pushishi har tangdastu farshi har vayrona bosh.

SHoir onhoero, ki az nomi padar, mansabu kori u iftikhor dorand, sakht kohish mekunad. Ba qavli u, boyad khudi shakhs boisi pahn gardidani shuhrati khesh dar ruzgor boshad:

Gavharnamoi javhari zotii khesh bosh,

Hokash ba sar, ki zinda ba nomi padar buvad.

Soib az shuaroi qabli tajribai khislathoi hamidai insoniro az qabili: khalqdusti, nekukori, mardumnavozi, ilmdusti, hunaromuzi, yori ba darmondagonu niyozmandon, nafrasoni, khoksorivu furutani, shikastanafsivu narmdili, durandeshivu olihimmati, sakhovatmandivu khayrkhohi, mehnatqariniyu subotkori, shikeboiyu burdbori va gayraro pazirufta, onro bo tobishhoi nav peshkashi mardum namudaast:

Dona behtar dar zamini narm bolo mekashad,

Sarfarozi beshtar, chun khoksori beshtar.

YO in ki:

SHabnam ba oftob rasid az fitodagi,

Bingar, ki az kujo ba kujo metavon rasid.

Va yo:

Davii donish buvad, Soib, ba nodoni dalel,

Har ki nodon meshumorad kheshro, donotar ast.

YO ki:

Hoksori na binoest, ki vayron gardad,

Selho ojizi kutohii in devorand.

Az in ru, Hazrati Soib ba in masalaho aqidai khossai khudro dorad va agar odditar karda guem, u dar in joda istiqloli andesha dorad. Ba andeshai u:

Pok kun az gaybati mardum dahoni kheshro,

Ay, ki az misvok doim mekuni dandon safed.

va az in ru gaybatro sarchashmai amoli bad mehisobad. Ba nazari shoir, makhsusan zabonro boyad ehtiyot kard, zero burrotarin shamsher ast, ki digar ba ham nameoyad:

Har kiro tegi zabon nest ba farmon, Soib, Oqibat kushtai shamsheri zabon megardad.

Digar az qavitarinu muhimtarin khususiyathoi lirikai Soib janbai andarzi, mohiyati mavizati kasb namudani on ast. Albatta, in yake az khususiyathoi sabki hindi buda, mahz tavassuti ashori Soibi Tabrezi taqviyat paydo namud. CHunonchi:

Umr raftu khor-khorash dar dili betob mond,

Mushti khoshoke dar in vayrona az selob mond.

Iqdi dandon dar kanoram rekht az tori nafas,

Rishtai khushke zi chandin gavhari noyob mond.

Tanparasti fursati molidani chashme nadod,

Rui matlab dar niqobi pardahoi khob mond.

Dil zi beishqi daruni sinaam afsurda shud,

Dogi in qandili ravshan dar dili mehrob mond.

Aql az kori dili sargashta sar berun naburd,

Dar dili bahri vujud in qatrai noyob mond.

Korvoni YUsuf az Kanon ba Misr ovard ruy,

Davlati bedor raftu poi mo dar khob mond.

Ahli darde, Soib, az olam duchori mo nashud,

Dar dili mo hasrati in gavhari noyob mond.

Gazali mazkur komilan ba mavzuhoi ijtimoi bakhshida shudaast. Hadaf va murodi shoir pushaymoni az umri barhadar rafta va tagofulvarzi buda, qahramoni liriki az ruzgori siparishudaash pushaymon ast. Maqsad az khor- khori umr hasrat ast, ki dar dil mondaast va murod az selob guzashti noayyoni ruzgor meboshadu mushti khoshok jismi farsudai ruzgordida. SHoir juziyoti in tasvirro niz khele tasirnok bayon kardaast: rishtai istehkomi lazzathoi moddi – dandonho, farsudashavii rishtai gavharho va gusastani on-rekhtani dandonhovu kholi mondani dahon. Hadaf az tanparasti – havoyu havasho, nemathoi injahonist, ki juyandagonash muntaho pushaymonand. Vale chi iloj?

Maqsad az dili beishq-farmudahoi nokarda va aknun on jismi afsurdai qafasi sina dogi qandilest, ki tanho joyro kholi kardaastu osorash (dogash) paydost.

Az sababi in ki mo az ahli dard-habiboni Haq dur mondem, pas az in gavhari noyob-fayzi eshon bahravar nagashtem. Az in ru, mo hasratzadagonem.

Gazal radifdor (radifi soda-mond), doroi qofiya (qofiyahoi muqayyad) buda, har kadom ba juz az vazifai adabi-badei, inchunin bori goyavi bar uhda dorand. Gazal dar bahri Ramali musammani maqsur ejod shudaast va az in jost, ki mohiyati pandu andarzi dorad. afoili gazali mazkur chunin ast:

yane: foilotun, foilotun, foilotun, foilon.

Hatto az hamin gazali zikrshuda ham qiyos kardan mumkin ast, ki lirikai ishqi tavassuti ashori Soibi Tabrezi janbai bisyor qavii ijtimoi-etirozi kasb namudaast va on qarib ba kulli ashori shuaroi in ahd va khossa Soib khos ast. CHun Sayido, ki yake az payravoni Soib ast va payravii u ba ejodiyoti Soib besabab nest, in mavzuhoro ba olitarin daraja rasonidaast. In ast, ki Soib meguyad:

Dar komi ajdaho naravi to hazor bor,

Soib, guli murod nachini zi rui ganj.

YO khud:

Az tiri ohi mazlum zolim amon nayobad,

Pesh az nishona khezad az dil figon kamonro.

Va yo:

Giryai sham az baroi motami parvona nest,

Subh nazdik astu dar fikri shabi tori khud ast.

Soib, dar barobari vasfi khislathoi hamida, dar hamin poya sifathoi razilai insoniro sarzanish mekunad va az jumla u khudkhohivu tanparvari, firebgariyu johili, nodoniyu mardumozori, sukhanchiniyu avomfirebi, bodakhorivu badmasti, kibru gurur, takabburu khudpisandi, durugguivu gaybatkuni, ziyonkorivu fisqu fujur, beparvoivu buhtonkori, gaflatvarzivu haqimardumkhuri, tamakorivu dunhimmati, siflagivu behayoi va gayraro sakht nakuhish namuda, boisi hama guna futuru pastraviho gardidani jomearo takid menamoyad, ki dar sifathoi zikrshuda meboshad:

Sadoi obi ravon khobro garon sozad,

Zi khushnamoii umr ast khobi gaflati mo.

Va yo:

Dar nomai mo harfi nasanjida naboshad,

Az jaybi sadaf sufta baroyad guhari mo.

[1]     Tatabbu-payravi

[2]     Sanin-sayqal

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