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SHAHRHOI OSIYOI MIYONA DAR ASRHOI HI–HII

Taraqqiyoti bosurati shahrho, istehsoloti moli va tijorati puli az muhimtarin alomathoi davraest, ki mo ba tahqiqi on pardokhtaem.

SHahrhoi Osiyoi Miyona kalontar va aholii onho ziyodtar megardid. Masalan, markazi hayoti shahri Samarqand havolii on ba hisob meraft, ki dar on jo mahalhoi sershumori tojironu peshavaron voqe gardida budand. Ayonu ashrof, ruhoniyon, savdogaroni doro va digar tabaqahoi davlatmand niz dar hamin jo maskan doshtand.[1]

Istehkomoti Bukhoro niz az nav sokhta, masohati shahr vasetar karda shud. Bisyor imorathoi navi muhtasham bino yoftand.[2] Tirmizi asrhoi HI–HII nisbat ba zamoni Somoniyon khele doman pahn kard. Dar asri HI istehkomoti shahr qavitar gardida, qalai on bo khishti pukhta rukash karda shud. «Qasri hokimoni Tirmiz» ham dar hamin asr qomat afrokht. Qismati tijoratiyu peshavarii shahr, ki on jo dar atrofi bozorho korgohhoi ziyodi kosibon ba vujud meomadand, ahamiyati makhsus dosht.[3]

YAke az kalontarin shahrhoi Tojikistoni janubi poytakhti Hatlon — hulbuk bud. Faqat qismati markazii on masohati qarib 70 gektarro faro megirift. Dar in jo qalae vujud dosht, ki dar vaqti hafriyot az on baqiyai qasri purzebu zinati hokimoni Hatlon yoft shud. Dar shahr korgohhoi gunoguni kosibi, az qabili kuloli, fuluzi va g. vujud doshtand.

hulbuk

Taraqqii bosurati shahr beshtar dar hamin davra ba vuqu payvast: dar joyhoe, ki peshtar partovkhonai shahr va yo zamini kisht mahsub meyoftand, binohoi iqomati ba vujud omadand[4]. Az rui mushohidahoi arkheologiyu topografi dar asrhoi HI–HII shahrhoi ham khurd va ham kaloni Turkmanistoni janubi: Marv, Dandonaqon, Omul, Zamm, Sarakhs, Maykhona, Abevard, Niso, YAzir, Dehiston va gayra khele ravnaq meyoband[5].

Dar vohai CHu mahz dar davomi asrhoi H–HII baze dehaho ba markazhoi kaloni shahri mubaddal megardand[6]. hatto nohiyahoi kuhiston (masalan, nohiyai voqe dar vohai Obi Nov, shokhai daryoi Panj yo khud nohiyai Isfara) toraft beshtar ba muomiloti moliyu puli kashida meshavand.

Taraqqiyoti quvvahoi istehsolkunanda va tadrijan az khojagii qishloq judo shudani kasbu hunar sababgori asosii ravnaqi bosurat va dar baze mavridho khele puravji hayoti shahrho megardand. Omili digari ravnaqyobii shahrho quvvat giriftani tobeiyati dehqonon nisbat ba feodalon meboshad, ki boisi ba shahr firor kardani ommai dehqonon gardida bud (in dar baze shaklhoi madaniyati moddii shahr naqshi khudro guzoshtaast)[7]. hamin tariqa, nazariyai K.Marks va F.Engelsro dar bobati ahamiyati firori dehqonon dar tasisi shahrhoi asrimiyonagii Evropa[8] nisbat ba shahrhoi asrimiyonagii Osiyoi Miyona niz tatbiq kardan mumkin ast.

[1] Masson M. E., 1950, s. 164–165.

[2] Sukhareva O. A., 1958, s. 31 va mobad.

[3]Masson M. E., 1938, s. 7–8.

[4]Litvinskiy B. A. va Davidovich E. A., 1954, s. 41 va mobad.

[5]Pugachenkova G. A., 1958, s. 190–199

[6]Kojemyako P. N., 1959, s. 183

[7]Mufassalan nig.: Litvinskiy B. A., 1953 b, s. 55 va mobad.

[8]K Marks, F. Engels. Soch., t. 3, s. 14–15; 50–51; t. 4, s. 425.

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