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OLAMI HAYVONOT

Hayvon chist? Hayvonho qismi az hama buzurgi organizmhoi zinda, az du guruhi asosii mavjudoti zinda dar jahon, ba shumor meravand.

Guruhi avval in rastaniho va guruhi duvvum-hayvonho. Istilohi hayvon az kalimai «hay», yane zinda girifta shudaast.

Hayvonot in mafhumi umumi baroi hayvonhoi khonagi va vahshi meboshad. Hayvon mafhumi umumi baroi hamai hayvonho, mohiho va parrandaho, gayr az inson meboshad. Zero jomeai insoni az reshaash az jomeai biologii hayvonho tafovut dorad. Harchand, tavri misol, murcha, niz bisyor murakkab sokhta shudaast va dar vay taqsimoti kor hastu on zaboi dorad.

hayvonot

Avlodi hayvonhoe, ki dar khushki zindagy mekunand, hayvonhoe meboshand, ki dar bahr va obi toza zindagy kardaand. Baze az onho dubora ba hayot dar ob odat kar- daand (timsoh, sangpushtho). Zamburugho va hayvonho makhsuloti tayyori organikiro istemol menamoyand. Damchunin yake az vijagii muhimi hayvonho on dalel ast, ki dar tani on tabodulai payvastai moddaho surat megirad.

Dar ravandi rushdi rastaniho va hayvonot, sokhtor va vazifai organizmi onho batadrij murakkab shuda, harakat, hazmi khurok, ikhroj, jins, nafaskashy, gardishi khun va azoi his paydo shudaand. Onho kushidaand, to ba iqlimi kurai Zamin mutobiq shuda, dar jangal, dar khushky dar kuhho zindagy kunand. Dar in mavrid hayvonho majbur budand, to rangi khud, andoza va shaklashonro digar kunand.

Dayvonho az rui sokhtori organizmi khub ba du guruhtaqsim meshavand: yakhujravi va bisyorhujravy.Dar holi hozir 16 namud vataqriban 1,5 million navhoi hayvonot mavjud meboshand.

Dar Qirgiziston tanho hayvonoti muhrador besh az 500 navro tashkil karda, 3171 navi hasharot va kanaho, 49 navi mohy, 3 navi dubahraho, 25 navi khazandaho, 335 nav parrandaho va 83 navi shirkhoron mavjud meboshand.

Hayvonho dar tamomi kurai zamin: dar khushky, dar ob, dar kulho, dar uqyonusho va dar atmosfera zindagy mekunand. Muhiti tabii zisti hayvonot ba: oby, zaminy, havoi, khoki taqsim meshavand.

Muhite, ki dar on hayvonho zindagy mekunand dar baze mavridqo doimy, dar mavridhoi digar dar ravandi tagyiri zohiri qaror doshta, vobasta ba holati khud ba qayvonho tasiri marbuta merasonad.

Omilhoi muhiti gayrizindai beruni, ki ba hayoti hayvonho tasir merasonad, chunin meboshand: harorat, rutubat, shamol va gayra. Dar zeri tasiri omilhoi tabi- ati gayrizinda tagyiroti davravi dar hayoti hayvonho surat megirad: baze baroi zimistonguzaroni ba khob meravand, barkhe rangi khudro tagyir medihand va guruhi savvum ba diyori garm meravand, baze nisbat ba olami beruna pinhoni zindagi me- kunand va yo ba muhit mutobiq meshavand. Onho az niqob istifoda mebarand. Digarho baroi tarsonidani dushmanoni khud, andozaashonro kalon mekunand, savvumiho, chun parazitho (kanayu kayk) jismhoi zindaro chun muhiti zist istifoda mebarand.

Ahamiyati hayvonho dar Tabiat, azchumla, baroi rastaniho bisyor buzurg ast. Hayvonho rastanihoro gardolud karda, naqshi muhimero dar pahn namudani tukhmii rastaniho mebozand. Masalan, kirmi boron, murchaho va gayra; hasharoti mayda dar kurai zamin moddahoi organiki tavlid mekunand. Onho hamchunin khokro mayda na- muda, dar sathi zamin khoki siyoh istehsol menamoyand.

Tavassuti surokhiho va kovokihoe, ki hayvonot mekanand, ba rastaniho obu havo osontar dastras meshavand.

Dar navbati khud rastani havoro bo kislorod, ki baroi hayvonot baroi nafaskashi zarur meboshad, gani megardonad. Agar rastani baroi hayvonhoi alafkhur gizo bo- shad, dar navbati khud alafkhuron gizo baroi hayvonhoi gushtkhur, yane darrandaho ba shumor meravand. Bad-in tartib, qonunmandii paydarhami paydo meshavad. Hayvonhoi alafkhur, chun hayvonhoi gushtkhur, be rastani zindagi karda nametavo- nand. Rastaniho be hayvonot zindagi karda nametavonand, chunki az hisobi energiyai oftob, na az hisobi digar organizmho, gizo megirand.

Hayvonot dar hifzi tozagi dar sathi zamin va zeri ob niz naqshi kalon me­bozand. Masalan, hayvonho boqimondahoi digar hayvonhoi murdaro, rastaniho va mevahoi pusida, barghoi rekhtaro mekhurand va yak nav tozakunii sanitari ba amal meovarand. Bisyor hayvonhoe, ki dar zeri ob zindagi mekunand, dar tozakunii ob naqshi kalon mebozand. Misli rastaniho, hayvonot niz organizmi zinda ba hisob meravand. Onho bisyor umumiyat dorand.

Hayvonot va rastaniho az moddahoi murakkabi organiki: safedaho, ruganho, uglerodho iboratand va doroy sokhtori hujayraho meboshand. In hama takid bar on medorad, ki rastaniho va hayvonot paydoishi yagona dorand.

Dar rui zamin besh az million navi hayvonot mavchud meboshand. Agar onhoro ba sinfho taqsim namekardand, omukhtani onho dar sohai ilmi zoologiya chandon oson namebud.

Bisyor olimon dar bakhshi taqsim namudani hayvonot ba guruhhoi sistemy va klas- sifikatsiyai onho kor kardaand. Klassifikatsiyai az hama osoni olami hayvonotro olimi shvedy Karl Linney (1707-1778) omoda kardaast. Hangomi klassifikatsiyai hayvonho Linney namudhoro intikhob kard. Tipho( namudqo) guruhe meboshand, ki qobiliyati afzoishyoby dorand. Vay hayvonhoro az yak tip ba tipi digar judo kard. Si- 143 pas hayvonhoro ba guruhdoi nisbatan khurd: sinfho, sinfhoro ba otryadho, otryadhoro ba oilaho taqsim kard.

Tavri misol, ba klassifikatsiyai hayvonhoi khordadoron menigarem (tobili 11).

Toblui 11

Tipho Sinfho Otryadho Oilavy Jinsho Navho
Horda­doron, Parran- dagon, Parranda- shaklho, Zogho, Akkaho, Akkaho
Zog Zog
SHurnulho
  SHirkhoron Darrandaho G^rbashaklho Gurba Gurbai vahshy
Rezachorpo Rezachorpo
Gurgho Gurg Sagi khonagy
Gurg

Hayvonhoi yak avlod niz ba guruhhoi digari organizmhoi zinda taqsim shavand. YAne onho navhoi ba khud monandro tavlid mekunand. Afzoishi hayvonho hodisai biologi ba shumor rafta, ba khud chunin sharoitro, chun joyi musoid baroi afzoishyobi , juftkunii du jinsi ba ham muqobil, gamkhori ba oyanda, ki idomai naslhoi in hayvonotro tamin mekunand, faroham mesozand. (sokhtani lonayu khona, dastras kar- dani gizo baroi navzodon) va gayra.

Bahoron mohihoe, ki dar daryoho va kulho zindagy mekunand gala tuda na dar shokhobhoi jarf, balki dar joi obash khub garmshavanda va rastanihoi obidoshta jam meshavand. Dar chunin joyho modamohiho tukhm meguzorand va narmohiho moei tukhmi meguzorand. Hamin tavr afzoishi mohiho surat megirad. Pas az afzoishyobi , badi guzashti chand vaqt az tukhmho kirmakhoi mohy paydo meshavand. Bahoron aksa- ri mohihoe, ki dar bahrho zindagy mekunand, afzoish meyoband.

Baze az onho, chun ozodmohi, mohii merike, ki tavri doimy dar bahr, bazan hazorho kilometr dur az sohil zindagy mekunand, hangomi davrai afzoishyoby ba daryoho bargashta, hama moneahoro pasi cap karda, ba bolo mebaroyand. Dar sadddo mohiho az ob khez zada, dar joyhoi kamob pushti khudro ba havo karda harakat meku­nand. Dar boloobi daryoho mohiho tukhm meguzorand, ki badan aksar vaqt on tukhmdo nobud meshavand. Masalan, ozodmohy, bolo ba muqobili jarayoni daryoi Amur harakat karda, nazdik ba 400 km-ro tay mekunad.

Dar ruzhoi bahory kalpesaho, morho, va sangpushtho tukhm meguzorand. Parrandaho ba chuftho muttahid tuda, lona mesozand. Baze parrandagon (shurnulkho, faroshturukho, mohikhurakho) ba koloniyaho muttahid tuda, lona mesozand. Agar dar kanorahoi roh mikdori ziyodi tusho, ki az yakchand qatorho iboratand, duchor oyand, pas dar onjo metavon lonahoi ziyodi shurnulhoro paydo kardan mumkin ast. Dar ka- nori boloii sohili daryohoi jaridor to 200 va az on beshtar faroshturukho lona mesozand.

In parrandagon, dar yak koloniya muttahid tuda, ba osoni baroi chujahoyashon gizo paydo mekunand. Dangomi parvarishi chujahoi khurd naqshi muhimero sokhti lonaho mebozand. Dar lonahoi jarf mamulan tukhmho khub muhofizat tuda, onho berun na- meaftand. Vaqte chujaho dar lona menishinand, vay az har taraf tavri barobar garm meshavad. Dar lona rutubat va harorati lozim tamin megardad. Lonae, ki dar shokhai darakhton va yo baland az sathi zamin dar sohili jariho qaror dorand, ba modari parrandaho, ki tukhm meguzorand va chujahoi navzodashon imkoniyat medihand, to az har nav hayvonoti darranda khud va chuchahoyashonro hifz kunand.

Tasiri qatnashavandai odam ba Tabiat (ba vija ba hayvonho) boisi kam pguda- ni mikdori yak nav va az bayn raftani navi digari hayvonot megardad. Vobasta ba in hayvonhoi miranda va navhoi nodiri on ba ruykhati Kitobi Surkhi Qirgiziston dokhil karda tuda, tahti himoya qaror dorand.

Pursishho

  1. Oyo mafhumhoi hayvon va darrandai vahshy yagonaand?
  2. Kadom hayvonhoro SHumo medoned? Onhoro dar daftarhoi khud navised.
  3. Farqi hayvonhoi khonagy az vahshy az chy iborat ast? YAk sahifai daftarro ba du sutuncha taqsim namuda, dar sutunchai avval hayvonhoi khonagy va dar duvvumash hayvonhoi vahshiro navised.
  4. CHun qoida, ba tabiati zinda odamon, hayvonot va rastanihoro dokhil mekunand. Gizoi onho chist?
  5. Kadom navi hayvonot dar Qirgiziston zindagy mekunand: shutur, kenguru, orangutang, fil, palang, gov, govmesh, gusfandi kuhi, cag, kabutar, pingvin, tyulen, shuturmurg va gayra ?
  6. Kadom navi mohihoro SHumo medoned? Kadom navi mohiho dar kulhoi Issiq- Kul, Son-Kul va obanbori Toktogul zindagy mekunand?
  7. SHumo dar borai Kitobi Surkhi Qirgiziston chy medoned?

 

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