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Munosibathoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi dar asrhoi XVI – XVIII

Feodalon – sohibi zamin. Dar asri XVII va nimai avvali asri XVIII huquqi atoliqho va qudratu ikhtiyori ashrofi baze toifaho nazar ba asri XVI bagoyat afzud. Umuri idorai davlat komilan ba dasti onho guzasht, mansabhoi kaloni davlatiro ishgol namudand. Dar nimai avvali asri XVIII dar sarzamini Osisi Miyona, alalkhusus, dar viloyathoi markazii on, tanazzuli amiqi iqtisodi ruy dod. Hojagii qishloq aqib raft. Non namerasid. Vale daromadi solonai feodal az zamin sol az sol meafzud.

Dar natijai zulmu istismori berahmona va khiroju moliyotsitonihoi az had afzun dehqonon chunon ham ba faqiri va qashshoqi aftodand, ki hukumat digar ba ziyod kardan va yo jori kardani yagon andozi nav jurat nakard.

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Zamin dar dasti feodaloni kalon bud. YAke az chunin feodaloni capvatmand hokimi Samarqand YAlangtushbiy bud. U zaminhoi behadu kanori kishtro, makhsusan, dar viloyati Samarqand, ba dast darovard. Ba zamin in, U az pardokhti davlatii daromadi solona ozod bud.

Buzurgtarin molikoni zamin shaykhoni Juybori budand. YAke az onho Tojiddin ba har roh zaminhoi be in ham behaddu hisobi avlodii khudro boz ham meafzud. Hamzamoni shaykhoni mazkur navishtaast, ki “Az sarhadi Turkiston to marzi durdasti Huroson deh, kuh, dashte nabud, ki eshon zamin nadoshta boshand”.

Darbori shaykhovi Juybori ba darbori davlat shabohat dosht. Capvari khojagii onho devoni vakil nomida meshud. Vazir ba korhoi moliyavii mulki onho mashgul bud. Mansabdoroni digar – sarkoru daftardor dar ikhtiyori khud yakchand munshi doshtand. Dar daftarkhonai eshon doimo ba gayr az 40 nafar munshi, 72 kas ba jam kardani andozi zamin mashgul budand. Gayr az inho, vazifadoron amal mekardand. Masalan, nigohubini asponi Hoja ba ikhtiyori mirokhurho bud.

Hoja Tojiddini nomburda hazor takhta zamini kisht, 50 chorbog dar hududi Bukhoro, Balkh, Samarqand, Toshkand, Andijon, Hisor va joyhoi digar dosht. Ba gayr az in, U sohibi saroy, khavli, hammom, bozorhoi bolopushida (tim), osiyo bud.

Dar hududi Hisor hazor nafar mardikoron bo amri khojagoni juybori kor karda, chorbog va gulbog bino karda, zaminhoro obshor gardonidand. Baroi obyori kardani zamini korami onho dar vodii Hisor dah hazor mardikor istifoda shud. Ba zamindoron chorvo va oloti kori taalluq doshtand. Dar zaminhoi zamindoron dehqononi choryakkor kor mekardand.

Dar hududi mulki Uroteppa kalontarii zamindori asri XVII va nimai avvali asri XVIII Hoja Muso (vafot 1731) nom feodal bud. Zamini koram va obi in shakhs, dar hududi yak chand dehahoi mulki mazkur va dar kuhistoni Maschoh joygir budand. Hoja Muso dar darbori Bukhoro obruyu etibori kalonro sohib bud. Az in mavqe istifoda namuda, u dar nazdi hokimoni Uroteppa imtiyozhoi khosro doro bud. Masalan, U az andozi zamin ozod bud. U hatto ba korhoi idorakunii mulki Uroteppa dakholat mekard.

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