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Munosibathoi iqtisodii bayni Osiyoi miyona va Rossiya

Soli 1781 mutarjim M. Bekchurin ba sifati safiri hukumati Rossiyai podshohi ba Bukhoro firistoda shud. Vazifai asosii saforat muayyan kardani  imkonoti inkishofi tijorati Rossiyavu Bukhoro va ba vositai Rossiya kashondani molhoi Bukhoro, inchunin halli masalahoi siyosi bud.[1] Dar navbati khud bukhoroiho iltimos mekardand, ki baroi ozodona tijorat kardan dar tamomi khoki Rossiya ba onho ijozat dihand. Umuman, chi nave ki E.V.Bunakov khotirnishon mekunad, az dahsolahoi okhiri asri KhVIII Osiyoi Miyona avvalin bor dar siyosati khorijii hukumati Rossiya mavqei jiddii mustaqilro ishgol menamoyad, zimnan maqsadu maromi tijorat dar in jo qarib dar navbati avval guzoshta meshud.140a Az soli 1796 sodiroti molho az amorati Bukhoro ba Rossiya az 379 to 485 hazor sum, voridot az 341 to 421 hazor sum afzoish yoft. Vale dar soli 1801 sodiroti molhoi Bukhoro ba Rossiya ba mablagi 732 hazor sum rasid, dar ayni zamon qismati asosii onro (besh az 545 hazor sum) masnuoti nakhi va pakhta, sipas qismati digarro (102 hazor sum) charm va baqiyai onro pusti qarokuli, reshai revoj va soiri kolaho tashkil mekardand.

Ba in tariqa, dar tarkibi molhoi sodiroti Osiyoi Miyona nakhi pakhta, gazvorhoi nakhi va  khudi pakhta mavqei bartariro dosht va zimnan 90% in guruhi koloro resmon tashkil medod. Dar in bobat mushohidai polkovnik Strukov khele jolibi diqqat ast, ki soli 1810 dar khususi tijorati Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona navishta bud: «Rossiya, ki dar istehsoloti khud nakhi pakhta nadorad, inchunin zarurati muhimro ba miqdori ziyode ham dar holati pakhtai tabii va ham se navi rishta az Osiyo daryoft menamoyad. Ilova bar istifodai baso mufid dar charogon onro dar fabrikahoi rus baroi tahiyai matohoi gunogunnav ba kor mebarand. Barobari in, har nav gazvorhoi az Osiyo voridshavandaro har du jinsi mardumi omi bo dilkhushii tamom istifoda mekunand, zero vay narm va badosht ast va az in ru, matoi zagirpoyagiro, ki davlat baroi (tamini) armiya ba vay ehtiyoji bagoyat buzurge dorad, aksaran bo on ivaz mekunand»[2].

Soli 1801 az Bukhoro ba Rossiya ba mablagi 732 hazor sum mol sodir gardida, moli az Rossiya ba Bukhoro voridshuda az in mablag yakunim barobar kamtar bud. Muhimtarin qismati molhoi voridotiro chervonhoi tillo (40%), mohut va digar matoho (21%), qalamfur, qirmiz, muina va amsoli inho tashkil medodand.

Dar soli 1813 gumoshtai Britaniya Mirizzatullo majbur shud etirof namoyad: «Tijorat bo Rossiya baroi Bukhoro tijorati asosist». har sol az Rossiya yak korvoni iborat az 4–5 hazor shutur meomad va hamin qadar yak korvon ba Rossiya meraft[3].

Dar nimai avvali asri KhIKh tanazzuli khojagii feodalii krepostnoi shiddat yofta, munosibathoi kapitalisti vusat paydo mekunand. Korgohhoi khurdi kosibi besh az pesh joi khudro ba manufakturahoi kapitalisti va sipas ba istehsoloti fabrikii sarmoyadoron medihand. Az soli 1804 to soli 1860 miqdori korkhonahoi sanoati az 2402 ba 15. 338 rasida, miqdori korgaron mutobiqan az 95,2 hazor to 565,1 hazor kas afzud. Makhsusan sanoati bofandagi, ki dar nimai duvumi solhoi 20-um va nimai avvali solhoi sivumi asri KhIKh taqriban 70% sanoati masnuot barorandai rusro tashkil mekard, khele taraqqi namud. Faqat dar zarfi 7 sol az soli 1825 to soli 1832 adadi dastgohi bofandagi du martaba ziyod shud.

Albatta, mo baroi tafsil dodani inkishofi iqtisodiyoti Rossiya imkon nadorem va ba in hojat ham nest, zero in masala dar tadqiqoti ziyode mavridi barrasi qaror giriftaast[4]. Mo in jo faqat dar baze jihathoi asosii on tavaqquf menamoem. Sanoati ba taraqqi runihodai Rossiya ba bozor ehtiyoj dosht. Inro bisyor arboboni onvaqta ba khubi dark menamudand. Dar soli 1835 G.Nebolsin in iddaoro khele vozehu ravshan bayon karda bud: «Az on vaqte ki furushi molhoi manufakturii mo dar bayni mardumoni Osiyoi Miyona ba ravnaq daromad, in tijorat baroi sanoati dokhilii mo ahamiyati makhsus paydo namud…»[5]. Chunon ki V.I.Lenin khotirnishon kardaast: «…kapitalizm be payvasta vase kardani doirai hukmronii khud, be kolonizatsiyai mamlakathoi nav… zindagi va taraqqi karda nametavonad». Va boz: «Baroi fabrikantho bozor favran darkor ast va agar qafomondagii tarafhoi digari khojagii khalq bozorro dar rayoni kuhna tangtar mekarda boshad, dar in surat onho bozorro dar rayoni digar yo dar mamlakathoi digar… justuju khohand kard»[6].

Mahz hamin va inchunin zarurati ba dast ovardani mavodi khomi Osiyo sababgori asosii vusat yoftani hajmi robitahoi iqtisodii Rossiya bo Osiyoi Miyona bud. Ba in vajh mahdudiyathoi az Rossiya ba kishvarhoi Osiyo sodir kardani tillo, filizoti siyoh va ranga, masnuoti filizi (ba istisnoi asliha) va galla az bayn bardoshta shudand. Ba tojironi har se daraja baroi savdo kardan bo Osiyoi Miyona va ba shakhsoni har zumra baroi dodu girifti mubodilagi ijozat doda shud. In va digar tadbirho ba ravnaqi tijorat sharoiti musoid faroham ovardand. Kolohoi Rossiya hatto ba Afgoniston, Qoshgar va soiri nohiyahoi mashriqzamin niz roh yoftand [7]. Ammo az khatar emin nabudani rohhoi korvongard ba taraqqii tijorat moneai sakhte gardida bud. Aksar vaqt korvoni tojiron, khususan onhoe, ki az Rossiya rohi meshudand, ba hamla va gorati rohzanon duchor megardid [8]. Korvonhoro hamrohi kardani dastai muhofiz ham kumak rasonida nametavonist. Masalan, korvoni purshumoru purbori tojirone, ki solhoi 1824– 1825 ba Bukhoro harakat mekard, bo vujudi muhofizai dastai musallah az tarafi rohzanon talavu toroj karda shud [9].

Az mavodi khomi Osiyoi Miyona makhsusan pakhta ahamiyati kalone paydo karda bud. Sanoati bofandagii Rossiya miqdori toraft beshtari onro talab menamud. In ast, ki kashondani pakhta muttasil meafzoyad.[10] Dar ogozi asri KhIKh az Osiyoi Miyona har sol qarib hazor pud pakhta ba Rossiya kashonda shud, miqdori on dar soli 1818 ba besh az 10 hazor pud, dar soli 1836 ba 38,5 hazor pud va dar soli 1858 ba ziyoda az 180 hazor pud rasid, yane dar davomi nim asr 18 barobar afzoish yoft.

Dar navbati khud Osiyoi Miyona ham az tijorat bo Rossiya khele manfiatdor bud. Bisyor mahsuloti muhim, az qabili chuyan, ohan, mis, masnuoti filizi, mahz az Rossiya vorid megardid. Az tangai kisai shahriyon sar karda, to tup — hama az filizoti rus sokhta meshud.

P.I.Nebolsin navishta bud: «Mo ba Osiyoi Miyona chunin molhoro mefiristem, ki dar tamomi Turon chizhoi az hama zaruri va mavridi masrafi umumi aholi mahsub meyoband. Tillo, nuqra, mis, chuyan, ohan, har guna masnuoti filizi, pust, rang, shakar, mohut, chit va matohoi gunoguni pakhtagi va abreshimi ba on jo az mo meravand. Osiyoi Miyona filizot, charm, mohut va chit barin molhoi moro muhol ast, ki bo hamii narkh az yagon kishvari digar girifta tavonad»[11].

Muvofiqi madrakhoi ovardai hamin muallif faqat dar zarfi dahsolai 1840–1850 tanho bo rohi Orenburg az Rossiya ba davlathoi khonii Osiyoi Miyona taqriban 40 hazor pud mis, besh az 400 hazor pud ohan, 75 hazor pud chuyan, 25 hazor pud fulod, ba miqdori ziyode sikkahoi tillo va nuqra kashonda shudand. Boyad guft, ki in miqdor az istikhroji filizoti mahalli beshtar bud. Baroi ommai vasei aholii Osiyoi Miyona, makhsusan, vorid namudani mato ahamiyati kalon dosht, az in ru, vay dar bayni molhoi ba in kishvar sodirkunandai Rossiya joi avvalro ishgol menamud. Umuman, tijorati Osiyoi Miyonavu Rossiya, sarfi nazar az baze lahzahoi ba mamoniat duchor shudan va hatto pas raftan, besh az pesh rivoj megirift.

Dar natijai tavseatalabii tijoratii Angliya va dushvorihoe, ki solhoi sivum va chilum dar sohai savdo ba miyon omadand, sodiroti Rossiya ba davlati khoni khele past faromada, nisbat ba voridot yakunim-du barobar kam gardid. Vale az okhiri solhoi 50-um va 60-um tijorati Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona dubora jon girifta, bosurat pesh raft. Ba sababi sar zadani janghoi dokhili dar Amerika az on jo ba Rossiya vorid namudani pakhta nihoyatdaraja kam shud va in, dar navbati khud, narkhi pakhtaro dar Rossiya khele bolo barovard. Dar borai vusati onvaqtai munosibathoi tijoratii Rossiya va Osiyoi Miyona chunin dalel guvohi medihad, ki dar Osiyoi Miyona mahz dar hamon vaqt masohati kishtzori pakhta chandin barobar afzoish meyobad. Pas az yak soli ogozi jangi dokhilii Amerika, yane soli 1862 az Osiyoi Miyona kashondani pakhta qarib se barobar ziyod meshavad.

Chunon ki dar bolo takid yoft, ba inkishofi tijorati Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona har du taraf ham manfiatdor budand. Vale az on naboyad sarfi nazar kard, ki dar tijorati khorijii Rossiya hissai voridoti Osiyoi Miyona hatto dar davrai avji khud niz faqat 2–3 foizi hajmi umumii sodiroti davlati Rusro tashkil menamud, dar surate, ki qismi asosii molhoi sodirotii Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya firistoda meshud. In holatro dar voridoti Osiyoi Miyona ham metavon mushohida kard. Qismi ziyodi molhoi voridoti az Rossiya meomad. Davlathoi Osiyoi Miyona khele peshtar az hamroh shudan ba Rossiya tahti nufuzi iqtisodii davlati Rus qaror girifta budand[12].

Manfiatdorii ham Rossiya va ham davlathoi khonii Osiyoi Miyonaro nisbat ba inkishofi munosibathoi tarafayn omilho, na in ki omilhoi siyosi, dar sayu kushishhoi az nimai duvumi asri KhIKh ba zuhur omadai hukumati podshohi dar bobati tamoman ba zeri nazorati khud darovardani Osiyoi Miyona va ba in vasila az istiloi Angliya – khatarnoktarin harifi imperiyai Rossiya emin nigoh doshtani on roli khele muhim bozidand. Inro boyad makhsus takid kard, zero baze muallifon[13]hangomi tahqiqi angezahoi asosii amaliyoti Peterburg dar Sharq ba jihathoi iqtisodi ahamiyati lozimi namedihand.

Munosibathoi samarabakhshi tijoratii amorati Bukhoro, davlati khonii Kheva va Khuqand az yak taraf va Rossiya, az tarafi digar, dar zaminai faoliyati jiddii diplomatii in kishvarho besh az pesh ravnaq meyoftand. Dar zarfi tamomi nimai avvali asri KhIKh onho saforat va namoyandagihoi khudro mubodila karda, ba halli masalahoi az nazari in va yo on davlat khele muhim muvaffaq megardidand. Yake az hamin qabil masalaho hamono mubodilai mol va tamomi muammohoi ba on aloqamand ba shumor meraft.

Safirone, ki az Osiyoi Miyona ba Rossiya firistoda meshudand (alalkhusus safironi amorati Bukhoro), kushish mekardand bojhoi ba molhoi hamvatanonashon andokhtashudaro kam kunand, baroi ba Osiyoi Miyona sodir kardani masnuoti mamnu, tillo va tanga (ki har vaqt kashondani onho man meshud) ijozat girand, onho bazan iltimos menamudand, ki baroi tojironi in va yo on davlati khoni dar yarmarkahoi  Rossiya joy dihand va boisror darkhost mekardand, ki baroi dar shahrhoi gunoguni imperiyai Rossiya, na in ki faqat dar mahalli makhsus tainshuda, kharidu furush kardani tojironi Osiyoi Miyona imkon doda shavad.

hukumati podshohi, dar navbati khud, ba vusati robitahoi iqtisodi va behtar shudani sharoiti tijorati savdogaroni rus havasmand bud va chunin meangosht, ki ba in vasila nufuzi siyosii khudro dar Osiyoi Miyona metavonad ba osoni pahn va ustuvor namoyad. Vay dar nazdi safironi khud, ki ba davlathoi khoni rahsipor meshudand, vazifai tadqiqi in davlatho va ozod kardani raiyahoi dar in sarzamin misli gulomon zindagikunandai Rossiyaro niz meguzosht.

Mavqei dushmanonai davlati khonii Kheva muddati chandin soli nimai avvali asri KhIKh Peterburgro ba tashvish meandokht. Vay ba maqsadi tahti nazorati khud qaror dodani tijorati Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona az mavqei jugrofii khud istifoda burdani meshud. Khoni Kheva ba rohi korvon dastahoi musallah firistoda, az tojiron banohaq boj mesitond va dar surati etiroz kardanashon onhoro gorat menamud; aksar vaqt badi qone kardani talabi in dastaho niz korvon az toroj emin namemond. Gayr az in, Kheva ba bisyor qavmu qabilahoi qazoq, ki kayho tobeiyati Rossiyaro qabul karda budand, davoi hukmroni dosht.

Qissa kutoh, mavzui guftushunidhoi diplomati khele bisyor bud. Ilova bar in, har goh hukmrononi davlathoi khoni baroi koftukovi sarvathoi zerizamini az hukumati podshohi firistodani injeneron va tekhnikhoi madanshinosro khohish menamudand. hamin tariqa, dar okhiri asri KhVIII amaldori sohai madan T.Burnashev hamrohi A.Beznosikov ba Bukhoro omad. D.Telyatnikov bo hamon A.Beznosikov va badtar T.Burnashev va M.Pospelov ba Toshkand, ki chand vaqt mustaqil gardida bud, safar kardand. Dar vaqti safari okhiron koftukovhoi geologi (tabii, dar sharoiti onvaqta yak daraja sathi) anjom doda, ba hokimi Toshkand Yunuskhoja roje ba on manbahoi tabii, ki u umedvori dosht, baze madrakho peshnihod karda shud [14].

Dar navbati khud, safironi Bukhoro – devonbegi Azimjon Muminjonov (solhoi 1815 va 1819) va qurchiboshi Mirzo Muhammadyusuf (soli 1816) ba Peterburg raftand. Missiyai diplomatii A.F.Negri (solhoi 1820–1821), ki ba hayati on tabiatshinos E.Eversman, kapitani shtabi generali E.Meyendorf va digaron dokhil budand, ba amorat tashrifi javobi ovard. harchand bastani yagon khel shartnomai tanzimkunandai munosibathoi Rossiyavu Bukhoro (ki ba on hamesha hukumati podshohi say mekard), muyassar nagardid, safari A.Negri ba amorat dar inkishofi munosibathoi bayni imperiyai Rossiyavu Bukhoro va dar bobati bo ham shinoso shudani in du davlat ba etibori yak marhalai nave ahamiyat paydo namud.

Mubodilai namoyandagoni mukhtalif dar bayni Rossiya va davlati khonii Khuqand niz doroi chunin ahamiyat bud. Az on chi, ki dar tarikhi hardu davlat naqshe guzoshtaast, pesh az hama, ba vodii Fargona safar kardani F.Nazarov (solhoi 1813–1814) va N. Potaninro (solhoi 1829–1830), ki ilmro bo malumoti roje ba mahalli nomashhur gani gardonidaand, boyad khotirnishon namud. Dar solhoi 1823–1829 safironi khoni Khuqand Muhammadalikhon – Tursunkhoja Nayzahojinov va Khoji Mirqurbon Mamadqosimov avval ba Omsk va sipas ba Peterburg firistoda shudand.

[1] Nig.: Bekchurin M., 1916.

140a Bunakov E.V., 1941, s. 6–8.

[2] Rojkova M.K., 1949, s. 41.

[3] Sokolov Yu.A., 1957, s. 198 (hamon jo va s. 208 nombari molho).

[4] Khromov A., 1946; 1950; Lyashenko P.I., 1947; Pajitnov K.A., 1958; Khalfin N.A., 1960, 1974; Ocherkho…, 1969 va bisyor dig.

[5] Nebolsin G.P., 1835, II, s. 176.

[6] Lenin V.I. Asarho, j. 3, s. 616, 613–614.

[7] Bobokhojaev M.A., 1965.

[8] Nig.: Masalan, tasviri uorati korvoni soli 1803 – Gaverdovskiy G., 1823.

[9] Nig.: Rojkova M.K., 1949, s. 46–48; Kaydalov E., 1828; Khalfin N.A.,1974, s. 176-198.

[10] Dar dasturote, ki ba mutarjim P.I.Demezon dar soli 1833 hangomi bo missiyai diplomati ba Bukhoro safar kardanash doda shuda bud, az jumla fahmidani on ki «oyo imkoni ziyod kardani» istehsoli pakhta hast yo ne va agar boshad, to chi andoza» tavsiya meshud (Chabrov G.N., 1957, s. III).

[11] Nebolsin P.I., 1865, s. 22-23.

[12] Malumoti soliyonai nisbatan mufassal doir ba tijorati Rossiyavu Osiyoi Miyona dar nashriyai Vazorati moliya, ki har sol bo unvoni «Tijorati khorijii davlati dar navhoi gunoguni on» mebaromad, ovarda shudaast. {amchunin bisyor talifoti purarzish niz mavjudand: Meyendorf E.F., 1826 (nashri fransavi, nashri rusi–1975); Nebolsin P.I., 1835; Khanikov P.I., 1843; 1851; Semyonov A., 1859, Nebolsin P.I., 1856, Kusheva E.N., 1934; Bunakov E.V., 1941; Rojkova M.K., 1949, 1963, Muhammadjonov A.R., Nematov T., 1957, Aminov A.M., 1959; Mikhaleva G.A., 1965; Khalfin N.A., 1965, 1974 va u.

[13] Nig.: masalan, Rojkova M.K., 1963; {idoyatov G.A., 1969.

[14] Doir ba nashri malumoti hangomi in safar jamshuda nig.: «Sibirskiy Vestnik», r. 4, 1818, s. 111–180, inchunin «Vestnik Russkogo geograficheskogo obshestva za 1851», r. 1, SPb, 1851, VI, s. 1–44.

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