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Mohiparvari dar Tojikiston: narkh, namud va muammo!

Agar dar jumhurii mo ba sohai mohiparvari diqqatu etibori jiddi doda shavad, solona to 5 hazor tonna gushti mohi istehsol kardan mumkin ast. In nishondod baroi tamini amniyati ozuqavorii mo khele ham musoidat menamoyad. Holo dar jumhuri parvarishi mohi dar sad muassisahoi kompleksi agrasanoati ba roh monda shuda, tanho dar 70 khojagihoe, ki doroi havz, kul, daryo va obanbor meboshand, istehsoli on ba chashm merasad. Ammo istehsoli mohi va mahsuloti on mutobiqi naqshayu durnamo ba roh monda nashuda, dar mavridi istehsoli sanoatii on khotirjami ba mushohida merasad.

Dar zamoni SHuravi bo nazardoshti zakhirahoi obi-biologii Tojikiston ba in soha tavajjuh az solhoi haftodumi qarni guzashta beshtar gardid. Mintaqahoe, ki chunin zakhirahoro doshtand, sohibi khojagihoi mohiparvari gashta, tai du dahsola in soha khele rushd ham namud. Tanho dar soli 1991 saydi mohi dar Tojikiston 3945 tonnaro tashkil dod, mahsuloti mohiparvari chun gizo ba 4261 tonna rasonda shud. Albatta, bo ogozi besomoniho dar jumhuri aksari khojagihoi davlatii mohiparvari az bayn raftand va in soha qarib bud, ki az bayn ravad. Vale zakhirahoi obi-biologii mo boqi mond, mardum bo usuli bobogi az kulho, daryoho va obanborho mohi sayd karda, onro ba bozor arza medoshtand va tuli in solho bozori istemolii mo az in mahsuloti purqimatu purnaf kholi nabud.

riba-mohi-tajik

Boyad tazakkur dod, ki dar davrai sohibistiqloli Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston baroi ehyoi in sohai khele purahmiyat tadbirhoi ziyodero rohandozi namuda, ba rushdi bemayloni mohiparvari qarorhoi sohavi qabul gardidand. Natijai chunin tadbirho bud, ki tanho soli 2005 istehsoli mohi ba 172 va 179 tonna rasonda shud, ammo dar muqoisa bo natijai istehsolii ponzdah soli peshin in nishondod 24 marotiba kamtar bud. Natijahoi istehsolii solhoi okhir ham qobili ahsan nabuda, in sohai muhim va, bemuboliga, afzaliyatnok ba kambudihoi jiddi ru ba ru ast va halli on baroi tahkim bakhshidani amniyati ozuqavori boyad noguzir boshad.

Mesazad dar Jumhurii Tojikiston yak barnomai darozmuhlati rushdi sohai mohiparvari bo darnazardoshti zakhirahoi obi-biologi tahiya gardad va on tamomi samthoi in soharo, ba khusus hifzi genetiki, navhoi mohi, afzoish va mahsulnokii on, behdoshti holati kulho, daryoho va obanborhoro faro girad. Baze ba in nazarand, ki az in barnoma dida qabuli qonuni sohavi zarurtar ast. Qabuli qonun ham bisyor kharaju marajhoro dar in soha jilavgiri mekunad, vale barnoma dar asosi prinsiphoi ilmi boyad tahiya shavad, to dar amalishavii nishondodhoi on olimonu mutakhassison ishtiroki faol doshta boshand. Agar chunin munosibat ba vuqu payvandad, on goh baroi tatbiqi siyosati yagonai iqtisodii davlati dar sohai mohiparvari zamina muhayo shuda va on ba rushdi soha takoni jiddi mebakhshad.

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CHunin munosibatu mavqegiri dar sharoiti imruza baroi samaranok istifoda gardidani zakhirahoi obi rushdi sohahoi mukhtalif, az jumla gidroenergetika va kishovarzi ham musoidat khohad namud. Bo ba tanzim ovardani istifodai ob, albatta, kulho, obanborhoi ilovagi, havzho paydo shuda, imkoniyati beshtari mohiparvari muhayyo megardad. Bo in, mardum beshtar bo gushti mohi tamin gashta, hazorho joyhoi navi kori paydo megardad.

Dar sharoiti kununi kompleksi sanoati mohiparvarii Jumhurii Tojikiston on qadar rushdi ustuvor kasb nakarda, on ba kishvarhoe, ki misli mo zakhoiri boi obi –biologi dorand, muqoisanashavanda ast. Vale mo imkoni masalan bo Jopon, Koreya, Eron, Turkiya va yakchand kishvari avrupoi barobar shudanro dorem. In durnamo amalishavanda ham hast va sohai mohiparvari, chunone ki dar bolo ishora raft, boyad ba sohai afzaliyatnoki kishvari mo tabdil yobad. Dar in rosto, baze iqtisoddonho va mutakhassisoni soha ba in nazarand, ki baroi ehyoi mujaddadi in soha, yane khojagihoi mohiparvarii sobiq mablagguzorii davlati zarur meboshad.

Albatta, in durust ast, vale hadafi mo sari masalai samaranok istifoda burdani zakhirahoi obi-biologii mamlakat ast. Dar jumhuri zaminai rushdi in soha vujud dorad, khojagihoi alohidai davlati va fermeri faoland va bozori istemoli moro to qadre bo gushti mohi tamin menamoyand, ammo arzishi aslii on khele qimat va tamomi qishrhoi jomea imkoni kharidori va istemolii onro hanuz nadorand.

Az rui malumothoe, ki mo dar dar dast dorem, holo dar jumhuri 12 zoti mohi parvarish meyobad, vale zothoi mohihoi daryohoyu kulhoi tabii purra omukhta nashudand. Tadbirhoi mushakhkhas bobati peshgirii kasalihoi siroyatie, ki dar daryohoyu obanborho pahn gashta va on boisi talafoti mohi va tukhmi on shudaast, boyad rohandozi shavad. Dar bozori mo asosan chor zoti mohi ba furush guzoshta shudaast. Saydi mohi dar jumhuri vobasta ba inkishofi biologii on ba etibor girifta nameshavad. Qochoqi mohi az obanborhoi buzurgi mo hanuz idoma doshta, peshi rohi on purra girifta nashudaast. Rushdi tabiii mohiparvari dar obanborho diqqatu etibori jiddiro taqozo mekunad.

Ba mushohida merasad, ki obanborhoi mo dar mavzehoi obpartoi turhoi muhofizati nadorand, hangomi ba daryoho sar dodani ob millionho mohichaho az obanborhoi sharoitashon mutadil ba vodiho sarozer shuda, az inkishof monda va yo 80-90 darsadi onho talaf meyoband. Zagoramohi dar obanborhoyu kulhoi mo beshtar ba chashm merasad, chunone mutakhassison meguyand, in mohii purnasl sole 10 hazor tukhm meguzorad, vale bo in sababho 3-4 hazor tukhmi on boqi memonadu khalos. Tadqiqotho nishon dodaand, ki dar bolobi obanbori Bahri Tojik, ba tagyiri vazi gidrogeologi hamasola tukhmi mohihoi laqqamohi (som) va simmohi (lesh) zeri loyqa monda, inkishofi tabiii in du navi mohi nigaronkunanda ast.

Ba mavrid ast khotirnishon sokht, ki alon miyoni mohiparvaroni khojagihoi alohida dar mavridi parvarishi sanoatii mohi va ba bozor barovardani mohi raqobat dida meshavad. Dar aksar mavrid dar parvarishi sanoatii mohi va ba bozor barovardani mohi raqobat dida meshavad. Dar aksar mavrid baroi pushonidani kharojotho inkishofi biologii mohiho ba etibor girifta nameshavad. Mohihoi hanuz vaznnogiriftaro shikor karda, ba bozor peshkash mekunand, az in nigoh 50 darsadi khojagihoi mohiparvar nishondodhoi pasti istehsoli dorand.

Ba mushohida merasad, ki hatto dar khojagihoi peshqadami mohiparvari az har gektar havzho 15-20 sentneri mohi istehsol mekunand, yane onho tekhnologiyai ananavii parvarishi mohiparvariro az dast doda, beshtar az usulhoi bobogii mohiparvari kor megirand, ki on dar sharoiti tekhnologiyai rushdkunanda ba talabot javobgu nameboshad. Bo mavjudiyati imkonoti zakhirahoi obi va sharoiti musoidi biologi mohiparvaroni mo imkon dorand, zothoi khele sergushti mohiro ba parvarish girand. Holo dar jahon besh az panjoh zoti mohi malum ast.

Dar jumhurii mo gulmohi khele mashhur buda, gushti on khele laziz meboshad. Parvarishi onro hatto dar kulhoi suni ba roh mondan mumkin, gulmohi kamkhur buda, beshtar giyohhoi gunogunro istemol mekunad. Andeshidanu ba roh mondani parvarishi ilmii bisyor zothoi mohiho, az qabili amuri siyoh, buffaloi amrikoi, sufimohi, karpi charmi, mohii safedi chashmsurkh, gurbamohi dar sharoiti obu iqlimi jumhurii mo khele musoid va az nigohi iqtisodi khele foidaovar meboshand.

Jumhurii mo bo sharoiti musoidi iqlimi va zakhirahoi farovoni obie, ki dar ikhtiyor dorad, metavonad dar oyanda ba yake az kishvarhoi sodirkunandai gushti mohi va mahsuloti mohi tabdil yobad. Mahsulote, ki az mohi istehsol meshavad, dar tavlidoti aksar mahsulothoi sanoatii digar istifoda megardad. Parrandaparvari be ordi mohi va ravgani on rushdi ustuvor nadorad. Mahsuloti mohi dar tib istifodai farovon dorad. Gushti on az nigohi sifat az gushti gov bolo meistad. Mahsuloti mohi dar majmu ba salomatii odam foidabakhsh buda, dar organizm naqshi tajziyakunandagiro mebozad. Odamone, ki doimo mahsuloti mohigi istemol menamoyand, nuri chashmro az dast nadoda, doimo salomatand.

SHaroit va zamon taqozo menamoyad, ki mo boyad in sohai az nigohi iqtisodi foidaovarro boz ham rushd dihem. Hanuz ham mutakhassison ba in nazarand, ki baroi ba roh mondani istehsoli sanoatii mohi zaminai khuroki nokifoya ast va mohiparvaron yakchand namudi gizohoi zarurii in soharo bo narkhhoi baland az khorij vorid menamoyand. Huroki asosii mohi dar havzho asosan sabus ast, agar dar jumhuri zaminhoi koram samaranok istifoda burda shavand, sole baroi rushdi mohiparvari sad-dusad hazor tonna galla basanda meboshad.

Tajribai aksar khojagihoi mohiparvarii sobiq, ki kheshro bo galla va digar mahsulothoi zaruri tamin menamunad, faromush nashudaast. Injo faqat havasmandi va dastgirii mohiparvaron metavonad ba peshrafti soha musoidat namoyad. Naboyad faromush sokht, ki dar jumhuri pahnoi obi az yak darsad beshtar buda, dar aksar obhoi ravon mohi va gizohoi baroi on zaruri khele kamand. YAne imkonoti bo rohi tabii afzoish dodani in soha khele mahdud meboshad va mohiparvaroni mo tajribai bo rohi suni zinda gardonidani tukhmi mohiro dorand. Dar obhoi na on qadar sardi mo to bist zoti mohihoro parvarish kardan mumkin ast.

Bunyodi korkhonahoi khurd-khurdi istehsoli konservai mohi va digar mahsulothoi mohigi boyad yak bakhshi barnomai rushdi in soha boshad. Mohihoe, ki dar obanborho parvarish meyoband va az nigohi ekologi bartariyat dorand, ba konservakunoni khele ham muvofiq va dar bozori jahoni niyoz ba onho beshtar ast. Tasis dodani korkhonahoi istehsoli ord va ravgani mohi ba maqsad muvofiq meboshad. In du namudi mahsulot dar jahon az gushti mohi dida qimattar ast. Durnamoi sohai mohiparvari dar jumhuri umedbakhsh buda, on ruz dur nest, ki sokinoni mamlakat bo gushti mohi va mahsuloti khudii on tamin megardand.

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