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Mafhum, tarkib va namudhoi shuuri huquqi

Huquq hamchun zuhuroti ijtimoi in yo on shakli munosibati odamonro nisbat ba khud ifoda menamoyad. CHunin munosibat mumkin musbat yo in ki manfi boshad. Agar inson arzish va zarurati huquqro dar jomea dark namoyad, on goh munosibat ba huquq musbat meboshad va baraks agar inson huquqro hamchun padidai befoida va nolozim shumorad, on goh munosibati khudro ba hamai on chizhoe, ki predmeti batanzimdarorii huquq meboshad, dar in yo on shakl bo tavri manfi ifoda menamoyad. In munosibat vobasta ba darki mohiyati huquq metavonad samaranok, oqilona va purtasir boshad.

huqugBoyad dar nazar dosht, ki shuuri huquqi yake az shaklhoi shuuri jamiyati meboshad. Vay dar aloqamandi bo shaklhoi digari shuuri jamiyati vujud doshta metavonad. SHuuri huquqi, pesh az hama, bo akhloq vobastagii zich dorad. Zero odamon ba mohiyat va mafhumi qonunho, raftori qonuni va faoliyati maqomoti hifzi huquq az rui meyorhoi akhloqi baho medihand. SHuuri huquqi bo jahonbinii falsafi, aqidahoi siyosivu mafkuravi va dini zich aloqamand ast. CHunki tasavvuroti inson doir ba olam, qonunhoi umumii inkishofi tabiat va jomea, tanosubi shuur va hayot dar shuuri huquqi inikos megardad. Munosibat ba huquq bisyor vaqt vobasta ba aqidai siyosi muayyan karda meshavad. In khususan ba munosibati marksisti-lenini nisbat ba huquq khos bud.

Zero az nigohi fahmishi marksisti-lenini huquq ifodai irodai sinfi hukmron dar qonun buda, qonun hamchun chorai siyosi manidod karda meshud.

Ba shuuri huquqi din niz tasir merasonad. Zero odamoni doroi etiqodi dini ba huquq az nigohi fahmishi dini baho medihand.

Agar mo huquqro hamchun voqeiyati obektivi baho dihem, on goh boyad mavjudiyati aksulamali subektivii odamonro ba huquq, ki shuuri huquqiro tashkil medihad, etirof namoem.

 SHuuri huquqi hamradifi noguziri huquq meboshad. Zero huquq tanzimkunandai munosibati bayni odamon meboshad. Az tarafi digar, jarayoni ejodi qonunho ba faoliyati boshuuronai odamon aloqamand ast.

Az in jo huquq natijai mahsuli chunin faoliyat meboshad. On chiz niz malum ast, ki jarayoni ba hayot tatbiq shudani huquq odatan natijai faoliyati boshuurona va irodavii odamon meboshad. Faoliyati huquqejodkunii Majlisi Olii Jumhurii Tojikiston misoli ravshani kori boshuurona shuda metavonad.

Ba sifati faoliyati shuur inchunin tatbiqi huquq dar hayoti har yaki mo misol shuda metavonad. Zero hangomi sodir namudani amali doroi ahamiyati huquqi mo na matni sanadi meyori, balki tasavvurotero, ki oid ba on dar shuuri mo paydo shudaast, ba inobat megirem. SHuuri huquqi majmui tasavvurot va hissiyote meboshad, ki munosibati insonro ba huquq va zuhuroti huquqi dar hayoti jamiyati ifoda menamoyad.

Tasiri shuuri huquqi dar bunyodi hayoti jamiyati nihoyat kalon ast. Hususiyati kharakternoki shuuri huquqi hamchun qismi tarkibii mekhanizmi tanzimi huquqi dar on ifoda meyobad, ki vay ham dar marhalai huquqejodkuni va ham dar marhilai tatbiqi huquq amal mekunad. Vay dar hamai mekhanizmi tanzimi

huquqi, ba monandi meyori huquq, munosibathoi huquqi, sanadi tatbiqi huquq ba in yo on daraja ishtirok mekunad. SHuuri huquqi dar marhalai tatbiqi huquq, dar jarayoni amali namudani huquq va uhdadorihoi huquqi dar hayot naqshi muhim mebozad. Az sath, sifat, kharakter va mazmuni shuuri huquqi to darajae raftori odamon dar jomea (qonuni, gayriqonuni, zararnok va khatarnok) vobastagi dorad.

Mahz ba tufayli shuuri huquqi odamon ba qonuni yo ziddihuquqi budani raftori khesh baho medihand.

Boyad guft, ki dar jomeai imruza shuuri huquqi boyad mazmuni gayrimafkuravi va gayrisiyosi doshta boshad. Inson ba hodisahoi huquqi na az nigohi manfiathoi mafkurai hizbi, siyosi, guruhi yo davlati, balki bo darnazardoshti arzishhoi bashari boyad baho dihad.

Tarkibi shuuri huquqi, pesh az hama, az ideologiyai (mafkurai) huquqi iborat meboshad. Ba mafkurai huquqi mafhum va tasavvurot oid ba huquq va zuhuroti huquqi dar jamiyat dokhil meshavad. Sath va sifati nishondodi chunin tasavvurot metavonad gunogun boshad – az oddi, muqarrari, ruyaki to ba ilmivu nazariyavi. Ba mafkurai huquqi ham muhokimaronihoi shakhs, tajribai hayotidoshtai rohbari mahalla va ham asari ilmiyu nazariyavii ejodnamudai olimi sohai huquq taalluq dorad.

Naqshi mafkurai huquqi dar tanzimi huquqi khele muhim ast. Dar asosi aqida, nazariya va talimoti huquqi faoliyati huquqejodkuni ba roh monda shuda, jarayoni tatbiqi huquq amali karda meshavad. Dar jomeai hozira mafkurai huquqi inikosi bevositai fahmishi musbat va mufidi bashar buda, asosi konstitutsionii khudro dorad. Muvofiqi Konstitutsiyai Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar Tojikiston hayoti jamiyati dar asosi raviyahoi gunoguni siyosi va mafkuravi inkishof meyobad». (q.1. m.8.). «Mafkurai hej yak hizb, ittihodiyai jamiyati, dini, harakat va guruhe nametavonad ba haysi mafkurai davlati

etirof shavad». (q.2. m.8). YAne mafkurai huquqi dar kishvari mo ifodakunandai hej guna manfiat nabuda, balki inikoskunandai arzishhoi huquqii umumibashari meboshad.

Dar tarkibi shuuri huquqi unsuri digar niz mavjud ast, ki onro psikhologiyai huquqi menomand.

Ehsos va hissiyot ba tarkibi shuur dokhil meshavad va baroi hamin inson nametavonad dar sohai tanzimi huquqi tanho fikrronii oqilonaro ba inobat girad.

Psikhologiyai huquqi, ki odatan az shinosoii odam ba huquq ogoz megardad, bo tasiri muhiti huquqii amalkunanda tashakkul meyobad. Dar nazar boyad dosht, ki psikhologiyai huquqi voqeiyatro tavassuti ehsos dark namuda, dar sathi fahmishi huquqii hamaruza qaror dorad va bo hamin sabab tagyirpazir yo zudivazshavanda meboshad. Tobishi ehsosii musbat yo manfi ba khislat va raftori durust yo nodurusti huquqi tasir merasonad.

Tahlili munosibati odamon ba qonun va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi imkoniyat medihad dar shuuri huquqi unsurhoi digari tarkibiro judo namoem, ki ba onho unsuri ittilooti, bahodihi va irodavi dokhil meshavad. Unsuri ittilooti nishonai dar shuuri inson mavjud budani malumot oid ba qonun va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi meboshad. Sathi ittilootii shuuri huquqi qismi tarkibii shuuri huquqi meboshad, zero be ittiloot oid ba qonun va digar sanadhoi meyorii huquqi nametavonad munosibat ba onho vujud doshta boshad.

Inson oid ba sanadi meyorii huquqi malumot girifta, onro bo arzishhoi shakhsii khud muqoisa mekunad va ba on baho medihad. Vobasta ba tasavvuroti inson doirai raftori u dar sohai huquqi tashakkul meyobad. Az tarafi digar, fahmishi mohiyati huquq az tarafi inson baroi amali namudani maqsad va manfiati inson musoidat menamoyad. Zero fahmishi boshuuronai mohiyati huquq az jonibi inson ba u imkoniyat medihad, ki dar amali shudani huquq amali shudani maqsadu manfiati khudro bubinad.

Dar asosi unsurhoi ittilooti va bahodihi unsuri digari tarkibi shuuri huquqi – iroda tashakkul meyobad. Inson qonunro donista va onro baho doda, ba khulosa meoyad, ki dar holathoi peshbininamudai qonun u chi kor karda metavonad – qonunro baroi amali namudani vazifahoi shakhsii khud istifoda barad yo ijro nakunad, yo in ki qonunro qatiyan rioya namoyad yo digar sanadi meyorii huquqiero yobad, ki ba manfiat va talaboti u javobgu boshad. Hamai in lahzaho ba unsuri irodavii shuuri huquqi dokhil meshavad.

Albatta shuuri huquqi dar hayoti voqei dar shakli yaklukht ifoda meyobad. Judo namudani unsurhoi tarkibi dar shuuri huquqi tanho baroi fahmishi naqsh va joi on dar hayoti inson va jamiyat musoidat menamoyad.

Baroi on ki mohiyati shuuri huquqi durust fahmida shavad, zarur ast ki namudhoi gunoguni on mavridi tahlil qaror doda shavad. Vobasta ba darajai etirofi zarurati huquq, darki mohiyati on va digar zuhuroti huquqi dar jomea shuuri huquqi ba se namud judo karda meshavad.

SHuuri huquqii muqarrari ba shumorai beshtari azoi jamiyat khos buda, dar asosi hayoti harruzai shahrvandon dar sohai tanzimi huquqi tashakkul meyobad. Odamon dar in yo on shakl bo navishtajoti huquqi duchor meshavand, az akhbori omma malumot megirand, faoliyati maqomoti hokimiyati davlati, az jumla Majlisi namoyandagonro mushohida menamoyand, raftori kormandoni maqomoti hifzi huquqro nazorat mekunand va gayra. Baroi odamoni in sathi shuuri khuquqi donistani prinsiphoi umumii huquq khos buda, aqidahoi huquqii onho bo tasavvuroti akhloqi zich aloqamand meboshad.

Dar jarayoni tayyorii makhsus va dar rafti amali namudani faoliyati huquqii tajribavi shuuri huquqii kasbi ba miyon meoyad. Subekthoi in sathi shuuri huquqi doroi donishi makhsus oid ba qonunguzorii amalkunanda buda, mahoratu malakai tatbiqi onro dorand. Ba chunin subektho shakhsone dokhil meshavand, ki fakultet va donishkadahoi huquqiro khatm namuda, donishhoi huquqiro dar jarayoni faoliyatiamalii khud istifoda mekunand.

Baroi muhaqqiqon va korkunoni ilmie, ki bo tahqiqi masalahoi tanzimi huquqii munosibathoi jamiyati mashguland, shuuri huquqii ilmivu nazariyavi khos meboshad.

Vobasta ba subekte, ki doroi shuuri huquqi meboshad, shuuri huquqi ba infirodi va dastajami judo karda meshavad. SHuuri huquqii infirodi bashakhsi alohida taalluq doshta, ba sathi tafakkur va jahonbinii u va khislathoi shakhsii har yak shakhs vobasta meboshad.

SHuuri huquqii dastajami khislati guruhi, ommavi va jamiyati dorad. Vobasta ba in, onro ba shuuri huquqii guruhi, shuuri huquqii ommavi va shuurihuquqii jamiyati judo menamoyand. SHuuri huquqii guruhi ba guruhu tabaqahoi alohidai ijtimoi khos buda, tasavvur va hissi in yo on guruhi ijtimoi, sinf, tabaqa va jamomadi kasbiro ba in yo on masalai tanzimi huquqii munosibathoi jamiyati ifoda menamoyad. SHuuri huquqii guruhi az shuuri huquqii ommavi farq dorad. SHuuri huquqii ommavi ba guruhi muvaqqati va noustuvori odamon khos buda, hangomi girdihamoi, namoishho va rohpaymoihoi osoishta zohir megardad. SHuuri huquqii jamiyati ba tamomi aholii kishvar, qita va davrai tarikhii muayyan taalluq dorad. Masalan, shuuri huquqii burjuazi, sotsialisti va gayraho. Ba on mafkurai khalqiyatho va millathoro niz dokhil namudan mumkin ast.

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