Home / Ilm / LIBOS

LIBOS

libosLIBOS, nomi umumii chizhoe, ki inson mepushad. L. tani odamro az tasiri muhit muhofizat karda, harorati badanro dar yak darajai muayyan nigoh medorad. Ba mafhumi L. kallapush, poyafzol, dastpushak va g. dokhil meshavand. Asbobi zinat ba L. tanho chizi ilovagist. L. barobari iqomatgoh hamchun yake az vasilahoi muhofizat az tasiri gunoguni beruna paydo shud.
L. az jumlai ikhtirooti qadimtarini inson ast. Dar bayni yodgorihoi paleoliti davrahoi okhir taroshkordhoi sangi va suzanhoi ustukhoni yoft shudaand, ki bo onho pust metaroshidand va L. medukhtand. Barobari pust barg, alaf, pustlokhi darakht niz hamchun L. istifoda meshudand. SHikorchiyon va mohigiron baroi L. pusti mohi, rudai hayvonoti bahri, paru pusti parandagonro niz istifoda meburdand. Inson dar davrai neolit sanati residan va boftanro yod girifta, baroi tayyor namudani L. nakhi rastanihoi khudruyro ba kor meburd. Davrai guzarish ba chorvodori va dehqoni ba odamon imkoniyat dod, ki az pashmi chorvoi khonagi va nakhi ziroat (zagir, kanab, pakhta) mato tayyor kunand. Inson to ikhtiroi L. badanro bo pust va miyonu ronro bo chizhoi digar mepushid. Sonitar khelhoi bisyori L.: kurtahoi darozu kutoh, chakman, yaktah, peshdoman, lungi, pojoma paydo shudand. Kafshi chubin yo khasin, inchunin porchai pusti chorvo, ki ba poy mepechondand poyafzoli odditarin va qadimtarin bud. Kallpush ba juz vazifai asosiash az zamonhoi qadim nishoni ramzi niz buda, mansubiyati ijtimoii odamon (kallapushi dohiyon, kohinon, qalandaron) va g.-ro nishon medod.
L.-ro odatan mutobiq ba muhiti geografi tayyor mekunand va matoash niz vobasta ba iqlimi mintaqahoi gunogun intikhob meshavad. L.-i qadimtarini khalqhoi mintaqai tropikii jangal (Afrika, Amerikai Janubi va g.) ruypushi miyonu ron, peshdoman, kitfpushak bud. Dar viloyathoi khunuki mutadil va nohiyahoi arktiki L. tamomi badanro mepushad. L.- i mintaqahoi khunuk ba L.-i shimoli iqlimash mutadil va shimoli durdast taqsim meshavad, ki duyumiro faqat az muina meduzand. Baroi khalqhoi Sibir du kheli L.-i muina – baroi mintaqai nazdishimoli noburida, yane butun, ki az sar mepushand (eskimosho, chukchiho, nenesho va g.), baroi mintaqahoi janubtar – burida, yane peshkushod (evenkho, yoqutho va g.) khos ast. Dar bayni hindiyoni mintaqai jangalzori Amerikai SHimoli L.- i charmini makhsus pahn shudaast: zanon kurtai daroz, mardon kurta va ezori daroz mepushand. Namudhoi L. ba faoliyati mehnatii inson vobasta ast. Dar zamoni qadim zanonu mardoni chorvodori bodiyanishin L.- i makhsusi baroi savoragardi muvofiq – ezori vase va joma mepushidand. Minbad dar rafti inkishofi jamiyat tasiri tafovuti mavqei jamiyati va oilavi ba L. afzud. Dar bayni L.-i mardonu zanon, dukhtaronu zanon farq paydo shud, L.-hoi ruzmarra, idona, tuyona, motami va g. ba miyon omadaand. Muvofiqi taqsimoti mehnat shaklhoi gunoguni L.-hoi kosibi paydo shud. L. avvalho makhsusiyati etniki (avlodi, qabilavi) va minbad umumimillii khalqhoro inikos mekard. Dar L., odatan, nobarobarihoi ijtimoiyu iqtisodi zohir megardad. Mas., mato, oroish, dukhti L.-i boyho, dehqonon, ruhoniyon az yakdigar farqi kaln doshtand. L. zavqi estetikii ahli jamiyatro niz inikos mekunad. Hususiyati badeii L. hamchun namudi sanati oroishu amali va mahsuli amali badei az on iborat ast, ki obekti ejodiyoti khudi inson meboshad. L. bo odam vobastagii tom dorad. Dar dukhtan va intikhobi L. ba tanosubi azoi badan, sinnu sol, inchunin unsurhoi juzii zohirii odam (qad, rangi mu, chashm va g.) etibor doda meshavad.
Zeri L. dar atrofi badan harorati yakkhela (28 – 320), namnokii kam (20 – 40%) nigoh doshta meshavad. L. talafi garmiro kam karda, ba in vasila nerui organizmro sarfa menamoyad. Gayr az in, vay pustro az osebi mekhaniki va khimiyavi, iflosi, changu gubor emin medorad. L. dar marhalai muayyani tarikhi paydo shuda, dar barobari manzil vobastagii odamro ba sharoiti iqlim kam kard, baroi mavjudiyat va faoliyati istehsolii u imkoniyat faroham ovard.
Mutobiqat ba iqlim, shiddati kori mushakho, khususiyathoi jinsi, sinnu sol, vazi salomati va g. talaboti asosi ba L. meboshad. Sokht va andozai L. boyad ba tagyiri obu havo muvofiq buda, ba ozod nafas kashidan, gardishi khunu limfa va harakat khalal narasonad. Gayr az in L. boyad ba talaboti muayyani tekhniki va iqtisodi (purdosht, arzon va zebo) javobgu boshad. L. dar mavridi sarmo boyad badanro garm nigoh dorad. Az in ru, baroi L.-i zimistona matoi vaznin va gafsro intikhob mekunand.
Matoi az had ziyod namkash namiro az badan dur mekunad. Matohoi tabii (katoni, pakhtagi, abreshimi va g.) doroi hamin guna khosiyat meboshaand. Matohoi sinteziro ba sifati qabati berunii L. istifoda burdan muvofiqi maqsad ast. Hangomi intikhobi L.-i gafs boyad kushish kard, ki poy, panjai dast, inchunin sar va kamar garm boshand. Baroi peshgirii khunuk khurdan az L.-i behad garm (khususan baroi kudakon) khuddori boyad namud, zero on boisi araq kardanu tar shudani badan megardad.
L.-i tobistona boyad badanro az garmi muhofizat kunad, az matoi pakhtagin yo katoni dukhta shavad. L.-i az matoi tunuku kushodrang dukhta kasro az shuoi oftob himoya mekunad. L.-i sokinoni nohiyahoi garmser boyad badanro az garmii toqatfarso emin dorad. Az nuqtai nazari behdosht baroi onho az matohoi katoni, pakhtagi va abreshimi tayyor kardani L. ayni muddaost. Matoi sintezi zud iflos meshavad, barq paydo mekunad, nafaskashii pustro khalaldor mesozad va boisi allergiya megardad. L.-i sinteziro zud-zud (mas., libosi tagro badi 3 – 5 ruz, jurobi kapronro har ruz) shustan lozim ast.
Libosi kudakon boyad havoguzar va vase boshad, badanro az khunuk khurdan yo bisyor garm shudan ehtiyot kunad. L.-i kudakonro muvofiqi khususiyathoi sinnu sol meduzand. Pusti kudak dar mohhoi avvali hayot nozuk buda, metavonad zud zakhmdor shavad. Binobar in, L.-i kudakro az matoi narmi namkash va be tugma meduzand. Az matoi sintezi dukhtani L.-i kudakoni khurdsol joiz nest, chunki on boisi damidani garmicha va angezishi pust megardad.
Har yak kudak boyad dastruymolcha doshta boshad. Onro baroi gum nashudan va toza istodan bo rezin ba kisacha basta memonand. Kombinezoni astarash garm baroi kudakoni sinni tomaktabi L.-i beshtar muvofiq ast. Matoi gafsi on badani kudakro az havoi sard muhofizat mekunad. Aksaran ba sifati L.-i ruy paltoi sabuk yo zimistonaro istifoda mebarand. Agar harorati havo 5 – 100 boshad, ba kudakon pesh az sayrugasht gayr az libosi tag, kurtai nimtanai ostindaroz (yo sviter) va shimi pashmin (yo ezor), ba poyashon jurob mepushonand. Vobasta ba obu havo ba kudak ba joi sviteri pashmin (yo kurtai nimtan) kamzul (kurtka)-i gafs yo paltoi sabuk pushondan mumkin ast. Agar khunukii havo 50 boshad, ba kudakon gayr az kurtai tagu kostyumi pashmin kombenizon yo kamzuli gafsi garm (yo paltoi sabuk), kulohi pashmin va dastpushak mepushonand. Dar mavridi 100 budani havo, pushondani paltoi garm, telpak, dastpushaki garm va muza zarur ast. Telpak, albatta, peshoni va gushi kudakro, ki ba sarmo chandon tobovar nestand, boyad pushonad.
Volidayn aksaran dar vaqti sayrugasht dahonu binii kudakro bo ruymol yo gardanband mahkam mekunand. In kor nodurust ast, zero kudak dar in mavrid bo bini mutadil nafas girifta natavonista, bo dahon havoi sardro nafas mekashad. Gayr az in, ruymol zud nam kashida, hissi noforam paydo mesozad.
Ba L.-i kudak jiddan nigohubin karda onro zud-zud shustan lozim ast. Har yak kudak boyad L.-i alohida doshta boshad. L.-i kudakonro dar mohhoi avvali hayot boyad albatta jushonid va darzmol kard; bo moddahoi sintezi shustani L.-i kudakon man ast. Nig. niz Kudaki shirmak, Sinni maktabi, Sinni navrasi, Sinni tomaktabi.
Libosi varzishi boyad ba faoliyati organizm (hangomi kori purshiddati mushakho) musoidat kunad, ba sharoiti obu havo, davomot va surati mashqhoi varzishi muvofiq boshad. L.-i varzishi boyad ba harakat khalal narasonad, az had ziyod tunuk va az had ziyod sabuk naboshad, to ki varzishgar bisyor garm nashavad yo khunuk nakhurad. Matoi L.-i varzishro az matoi sabuk va havoguzaron (baroi zud ikhroj shudani araq) meduzand. On boyad araqro khub jabbida, bemalol berun kunad. Talaboti nomburda makhsusan baroi L.-i tag muhim ast. Dar in bobat L.-hoi trikotaji talaboti gigieniro beshtar qone megardonand; sufi khom va karbos baroi mashgul shudan ba varzish chandon muvofiq nestand. L.-i varzishii zimistona boyad sabuk boshad va garmiro khub nigoh dorad. L.-hoi baroi mashq tainshudaro az matoi pakhtagin, pashmin, trikotaji pashmin, matoi sintezi meduzand. Hangomi kuhbaroi va pokhodhoi turisti dar havoi sard L.-i shamolgardon zarur ast; baroi khunuk nazadani baze uzvhoi badan az gushpushak, jurobi pashmin va g. istifoda mebarand.

Загрузка...

Dar boramon

Инчунин кобед

hilol

Liseyi “Hilol” dar sh. Dushanbe

Liseyi HILOL yo khud onro niz gimnaziya ham menomand, az solhoi 2000-um faoliyat namuda talabagonro …