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HODISAHOI MAGNITI

Mo bo kalimai magnit shinos hastem. Dar binoho dahho hodisahoi istifodai magnitro duchor omadan mumkin ast. Onhoro dar magnitofonho, rishgirakhoi barqi, balandguyakho, dar dari mebelhoi khonagi va digar ashyo istifoda mebarand. Zamine, ki mo dar on zindagy mekunem, magniti buzurg shumorida meshavad.

Oftob in magniti boz ham buzurgtar shumorida meshavad.

Dar tabiat chunin Magnitkoy buzurg, az qabili: konhoi ohan, madani magnit (magnetit) mavjud meboshand.

Nomi «magnit», shoyad az jonibi dromnavisi YUnoni qadim Evripid (solhoi 406-480 to ba melod) guzoshta shuda boshad. CHunin malumot dar dramai u «Sangi Magneziya» dida meshavad. Dar on asar takid megardad, ki vojai «magnit», shoyad az nomi muzofoti Magneziya, ki dar YUnon qaror dorad, ibtido bigirad. Sayyohi rus V.A. Teplov dar solhoi 80-i qarni HEH dar Magneziya qaror doshta, takid karda bud, ki in kuh bo tandarhoi paydarpayash mashhur ast. CHunin khosiyatro Kuhi Magniti Ural, ki komilan az magnetit iborat ast, doro meboshad. Az hikoyoti kuhan malum ast, ki ashyoi ohanine, ki odamon hamrohi khud burdaand, az jonibi in kuh jazb me- shudand. Dar afsonai «Hazoru yak shab» dar borai kuhi Zimir dar Habashiston gufta meshavad, ki hama mekhi kishtidoro va digar ashyoe, ki az ohan sokhta shudaand, ba khud mekashid.

kompas

SHoyad magnitho az zamonhoi qadim dar Avrupo va Osiyo istifoda meshudand.

A Jismhoe, muddati daroz khususiyati magnitnokii kheshro hifz kardaand, magnitho nomida meshavand.

Magnitho ba tabii va suni taqsim meshavand.

Magnithoe, ki dar maktab va yo sharoiti khonagy istifoda meshavand, bo rohi suny ba dast ovarda shudaand. SHaklhoi onho gunogun meboshand. Dar rasmi 45

magnithoe nishon doda shudaand, ki shakli nal va yo rakh dorand. Agar magniti rakhdorro ba qabati arramaydagihoi ohanin guzoshta, dubora onro bardorand, pas mebinem, ki arrarezai ohanin tavassuti qismathoi gunoguni magnit bo har roh jazb meshavand.

Ba nugi magnit arrareza, beshtar dar mobayni on kamtar jazbu jam meshavand. Magnitro dar baynash bo rishtai duqabata basta ovezon mekunem. Agar magnitro boehtiyot baharakat darovarem, vay andak davr zada, meistad. Pas az tavaqquf yake az qutbhoi magnit ba shimol va digarash ba janub menigarad. Agar magnitro az in holat berun kunem, pas az tavaqkuf boz dubora ba holati avvalaash barmegardad. Qutbe, ki dar on magnit ovezon tuda, ba shimol nigaronida shudaast, qutbi shi­mol va qutbe, ki ba janub nigaronida shudaast, qutbi janub nomida meshavad. Qutbi shimoli magnit bo harfi N ishora tuda, bo rangi oby rang karda meshavad. Qutbi januby bo harfi S ishora tuda, bo rangi surkh rang karda meshavad.

▲ Dar hama magnitho hatman du qutb mavjud meboshand: kutbi shimoly (N) va qutbi januby (S).

Agar magnitro ba jismhoe, ki az moddahoi gunogun sokhta shudaand, nazdik kunem, pae baze az onho ba magnit jazb meshavand, bazeashon ne. Tavri misol, ba magnit ohan, chuyan va pulod khub jazb meshavand. Vale nikel va kobalt jazb na- meshavand.

Kayhost, ki aqrabakhoi magnity istifoda meshavand. Aqrabaki magnity in magniti sabukest, ki az pulod sokhta shudaast. Dar on podshipniki shishagin guzoshta shudaast. Podshipniki aqrabakho ba suzanhoi tez, ki dar poya qaror dorand, guzoshta meshavand. Az in ru, vay metavonad ozod charkh zanad va hamesha dar samti shimol qaror bigirad.

Agar yak aqrabakro ba aqrabaki digari magnity nazdik kunem, onho charkh zada, qutbhoi muqobilro ba hamdigar gardonida, tavaqquf mekunand. (rasmi 49-6).

A Qutbhoi gunogunnomi magnitho ba hamdigar jazb shuda, qutbhoi yaknoma az hamdigar dur meshavand.

KOMPAS (QUTBNAMO)

Qismati asosii qutbnamo aqrabaki magnity, ki ba suzanhoi tez nasb shudaast, ba shumor meravad. Aqrabaki magnity dar quttii mudavvar joygir karda meshavad. Dar shkalai kompas samthoi ufuq nishon doda shudaast. Dar holati gayrikori aqrabaki magniti davr namezanad, zero bo fishangcha payvast shudaast. Agar aqrabakro ozod namuda, qutticharo tavre bigardonem, ki qutbi shimolii aqrabak bo nuqtai shimolii shkala rost oyad, metavon digar samthoi ufuqro paydo kard. Agar dar nazdikii kompas magniti qavi va yo ashyoi vaznini metalli qaror doshta boshand, pas vay tav­ri durustu daqiq samthoi ufuqro nishon doda nametavonad. Dar nuqtahoi gunoguni Zamin aqrabaki soat ba tavri muayyan qaror megirand. In bayongari on ast, ki dar girdi Zamin maydoni buzurgi magniti vujud dorad.

Imkoniyati bo rohi suni ba dast ovardani maydoni magniti az tarafi fiziki daniyagi Ersted soli 1820 zikr shuda bud.

Agar aqrabaki magnitiro dar pahlui noqile, ki jarayoni barqro intikol medihad, guzorem, pas metavon mushohida kard, ki vay ba samti shimol-janub moil ast. Pas malum megardad, ki dar girdi noqili jarayondor maydoni magnity paydo meshavad.

Suporish

  1. Mushohida kuned, ki magnit kadome az moddahoi dar zer zikrshavandaro ba khudash mekashad: mekhi ohanin, qalam, shisha, alyuminiy, chuyan, kogaz va gayra
  2. Kadom qismati magnit ba khud beshtar ohanrezahoro mekashad?
  3. Suzan yo skrepkaro yake pasi digar ba qutbi magnit biband ed. Sipae suzani boloro ba dast girifta, halqai hosilshudaro az magnit berun kashed. Oyo pas az in halqa boqy memonad?
  4. Magnitro boloi miz guzoshta, boloi on karton bimoned. Ohanrezahoro ba karton rekhta, ohistakak ba karton bizaned. Ba manzarai paydoshuda bingared va rasmi onro bikashed. In rasm ifodagari maydoni magnity ast. CHaro dar in tajribaho ohanrezahoro istifoda mebarand?

Pursishho

  1. Vojai magnit az kujo paydo shudaast?
  2. Magnitho chistand?
  3. Qutbhoi magniti chistand?
  4. Magnit chand qutb dorad. Onho chi tavr ifoda meshavand?
  5. Magnitho chitavr faoliyat menamoyand?
  6. Kompas chy tavr sokhta shusaast?

Рабство

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