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Gulsangho – SHakphoi hayotii onho

Gulsangho yake az organizmhoi makhsus tashakkulyoftai rastanihoi darajai past meboshand. Jismi (tanai) qabat-qabati onho az du organizm – obsabz va zanburug tarkib yoftaast va chun yak organizmi tom faoliyati hayoti zohir mekunad. Az du organizm iborat budani gulsanghoro bori avval olimi olmoni S. SHvendr soli 1867 muay- yan kardaast.

gulsang

Dar rui Zamin taqriban 20 000 namudi gulsanghoi shakli mor- fologiashon gunogun malumand. Har sol az tarafi olimoni gulsangshinos boz dahho namudhoi navini gulsangho muayyan karda me- shavand.

Gulsangho dar tabiat nihoyat pahn shudaand. Onho dar tamomi kurai Zamin, az biyobonhoi khushki tafson to Arktika, dar zaminhoi behosilu begiyoh, tanai darakhton, dar rui kharsanghoi az nuri oftob tafsidayu siyokhgashta, dar tanai devorho, qullahoi balandi kuhhoi sar ba falak mesabzand.

Dar zonahoi (mintaqahoi) tundra gulsangho maqomi khosa dorand. Az pushishi yaklukhti (sar to sari) gulsangho tundra guyo libosi yakrangu khiratobro darbar dorad. Dar tundra, khususan, gulsangi gavaznkhurak, ki bo nomi “ushnai gavazn” malum ast, khele farovon meruyad.

Gulsangho andozai gunogun dorand. Bazei onho chunon khurdand, ki onhoro faqat dar zeri mikroskop didan muyassar meshavad. Digar gulsangho boshand, masalan, gulsangi gavaznkhurak maydonhoi kalonro ba misli qolini yaklukht faro giriftaand.

Gulsangho ranghoi gunogun dorand. Gunogunii rangho ba mav- judiyati pigmenthoi rangdihandai tarkibi onho vobasta ast. Pigmentho dar jildi rishtai zanburug, bazan dar sitoplazmai hujayrahoi on jam meshavand. Dar gulsangho 5 kheli pigmentho: sabz, kabud, bunafsh, surkh va qahvarang dida meshavand. Dar paydoshavii ranghoi gunoguni gulsangho maqomu ahamiyati nuri oftob khele kalon ast. Har qadare, ki dar makoni sabzishi gulsangho tobishi nurafkanishi oftob farovon boshad, hamon qadar rangi onho tobishi balandro ba khud megirad. Masalan, zargulsangi devori (ksantoriya), ki dar joi serrushnoi mesabzad, tanai qabat- qabatash rangi surkhi norinjii balandro dorad. Dar sharoiti kamrushnoi boshad, hamin gulsang rangi norinjii khudro gum karda, ba khud rangi khokistarii sabzchatobro megirad. Az in jost, ki namudhoi gulsanghoi dar mintaqahoi balandkuh va qutbhoi Antarktidayu Arktika, ki dar atmosferai sofu bechangu gubor va rushnoii farovoni oftob nashunamo mekunand, ba khud ranghoi ravshani balandro giriftaand.

Gulsangho na tanho ranghoi gunogun, inchunin shaklhoi gunoguni morfologi niz dorand. Jismi (tanai) qabat-qabati onkho, ki shakli kafkmonand doshta, dar rui sangho mesabzand, bargshakl buda, rangi pahnaki onho gunogun meshavad. Onho dar rui sang, pustlokhi darakhton sabzida, bazeashon shakli buttagi dorand. Gulsanghoi buttashakl shokharonda buda, doroi poya va navda meboshand. Ba muhiti sukunatashon tavassuti qismi poyonii poya aloqamand hastand.

Sabzishi gulsangho khele sust meguzarad. Masalan, gulsangi “ushnai gavazn” dar yak sol hamagi 1-3 millimetr qad mekashad. Sabzishi nihoyat susti gulsangho ba harorat, miqdori borishot, namno- kii havo va ba kam budani zakhirai modsahoi organiki dar orga- nizmi onho zich vobastagi dorad. Paydoshavii moddahoi organiki dar jismi (tanai) gulsangho ba davomdor guzashtani ravandi fotosintez aloqamand ast. Hususan, dar fasli tobiston dar natijai norasogii ob dar organizmi gulsangho fotosintez nihoyat sust ba amal meoyad va dar onho zakhirai moddahoi organiki nihoyat kam meboshad. Sabzish va inkishofi boavji gulsanghoro, odatan, dar sohilhoi bahrho va kuhsoroni doimo dar zeri tumani gafsbuda mushohida kardan mumkin ast.

Gulsangho rastanihoi bisyorsolaand. Onho dahho va sadho sol umr mebinand.

  1. Gulsangho chi khel sokht dorand?
  2. Namudhoi gunoguni gulsangho dar kujoho vomekhurand?
  3. Gunogunrangii namudhoi gunoguni gulsangho ba chi vobasta ast?
  4. Gunogunshaklii gulsangho dar chi zohir meshavad?
  5. Sabzishi susti gulsangro chi tavr metavon manidod kard?
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