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Fakhruddini Rozi (Kitob)

Merosi ilmiyu adabii donishmandon va mutafakkironi guzashtai mardumi forsu tojik to kunun arzishhoi voloi khudro nigoh doshta, mutobiqi talaboti davru zamon zarurati purra pajuhishu barrasi namudani onho pesh omadaast, zero shinokhti shakhsiyathoi buzurgon va omuzishu tahqiqi osori onho dar ehyoi anana va sunnathoi niyogon, khudshinosivu khudogohii mardum, inchunin bolo raftani sathu sifati omuzishu parvarish (talimu tarbiya) va khubtaru behtar gashtani donishu marifat, mahoratu malaka, odobu akhloqi navrasonu javonon naqshi muhimu bosazoe khohad guzosht.

kitobi-faxrudini-roziMusallam ast, ki dar har davru zamon niyozi insoniyat ba talimu tarbiya vujud doshtaast va in ehtiyojot hanuz ham idoma dorad va dar oyanda niz idoma khohad yoft, chunki nasli navras baroi peshburdi hayot, dastyobi ba kasbu hunar, rizqu ruzi, nutqu guftugu, ilmu marifat niyoz ba murabbiyu omuzgor dorad. On tajribavu malakaero, ki volidayn ba farzandon, ustodon ba shogirdon, kalonsolon ba khurdsolon, mutakhassisoni sohahoi gunogun ba navomuzon medihand, inchunin avvalin harakotu kalimote, ki az tarafi murabbi ba kudak yod doda meshavad, zeri mafhumi «talimu tarbiya» qaror megirand. Ammo talimu tarbiya dar natijai ravand va inkishofi marohili gunoguni khud, ba etibori dastovardhoi hayoti odami farokhu gustarish yoftaast.  Giriftani kitob >>> 

Dar tashakkulu takomuli in ravand dar har gushavu kanori olam, az har qavmu millat akhtaroni ravshanu tobone durakhshidaand va az khud nuru safoero jihati talimu tarbiya, takmili odobu akhloqi insoni ba olamiyon nurafshoni namudaand. Az jumlai onho donishmandi buzurgi okhiri asri XII va avvali asri XIII (V-VІ-i hijri) Abuabdulloh Muhammad ibni Umari Rozi ast, ki bo nomhoi «Fakhruddini Rozi», «Imom Rozi», «Fakhri Rozi», «Imom Fakhr» maruf gashtaast va dar sarchashmahoi tarikhiyu tahqiqoti dar borai u malumothoi ziyodu gunogune ba mo rasidaand. CHunonki ustod Nozir Arabzoda qayd namudaast, tavajjuh ba shakhsiyat va talimoti Fakhruddini Rozi hanuz az davrai zindagiash ogoz gashta, to kunun dar borai u va afkoru osorash dar sarchashmahoi ilmiyu adabiyoti tadqiqoti malumoti farovone darj gardidaast. Ammo aksari muhaqqiqonu tarikhnigoron uro hamchun donandai jumlai ulumi zamonaash, dar radifi faylasufoni mashhuru maruf nom burdaand, hatto ikhtilofi nazar namudaand, ki oyo Fakhruddini Rozi faylasuf ast yo mutakallim va mo sharhi in mavzuro dar oyanda zikr khohem kard. Muvofiqi guftai N. Arabzoda dar zamoni hukumati shuravi avvalin bor M. N. Boltaev jahonbinii falsafi va mantiqii F. Roziro dar asari khud «Masoili gnoseologi va mantiqi dar osori Ibni Sino va maktabi u» (Dushanbe, 1966) bayon kardaast. Sipas N. Naimov dar mavzui «Aqidahoi falsafi va mantiqii Fakhruddini Rozi» dissertatsiyai nomzadi navishtaast.

Hudi N. Arabzoda soli 1993 risolaero ba tab rasonidaast, ki dar on roje ba hayot, aqoid va muhimtarin masoili jahonbinii falsafii Fakhruddini Rozi sukhan kardaast. CHi tavre ki malum megardad, to in dam muhaqqiqoni mazkur beshtar ba jahonbini va masoili falsafii F. Rozi ru ovarda, onhoro to haddi imkon tahlilu barrasi kardaand.

Honandai muhtaram, risolaero, ki dar dast dored, dar zaminai osori dastrasgashtai Fakhruddini Rozi va digar manobei tarikhiyu tadqiqoti talif yofta, beshtar ba masoili tarbiyaviyu akhloqi yo khud afkori pedagogii F. Rozi ravona gardidaast, ki onro dar ilmi falsafa «Falsafai ijtimoi» guftaand: «Ilmi akhloqi Fakhruddini Rozi, ki az rui anana falsafai amali nomida meshavad, ba talimot dar borai nafs asos yofta, tahqiqi afolu khislathoi akhloqii inson va hayoti ijtimoii uro dar bar megirad»1. Sababi paygirii mavzui mazkur qabl az hama peshnihodi ustodi giromiqadr M. Lutfulloev va badan ru ovardan ba osoru afkori niyogon, omuzishu pajuhish va istifodai onho dar zamoni muosir jihati khubtar gashtani ravandi talimu tarbiya va kamoloti odobu akhloqi insoni meboshad, zero zamoni imruza bo vujudi dastovardu peshravihoi ilmiyu tekhnikiash, az zafu norasoihoi adabiyu akhloqi, tabligu tashviq va tahojumi farhanghoi begona ori nest. Az in ru, ba andeshai banda omuzish va istifoda az osoru afkor, tavsiyavu peshnihodhoi olimonu mutafakkironi guzashta, ba khusus niyogon dar rafi in mushkilot kumak khohad rasonid.

Risola bo bayoni muhiti siyosiyu ijtimoii davroni Fakhruddini Rozi, chigunagii jarayoni afkoru ikhtilofoti mazohibu firqahoi mavjuda va maktabhoi aqidaviyu falsafi, inchunin zindaginomavu osori F. Rozi ogoz gashta, sipas bo bayoni afkori tarbiyavii F. Rozi va naqshi on dar tarbiyai nasli navras va khulosavu natijagiri intiho meyobad. YOdovar meshavem, ki jihati osonii fahmi khonanada baze kalimotu iboroti dushvorfahmro dar qavsayn yo povaraq tarjumavu sharh dodaem. Matolibi risola beshtar dar asosi manobei mavjuda dar du makon: Kitobkhonai millii Tojikiston va Kitobkhonai akademiyai ilmhoi Tojikiston ba nomi Indira Gandi talifu tadvin shudaast. Tanho yak asari F. Rozi bo nomi «Al-firosat» az tariqi shabakai internet, ki dar majallai «Tarikhi ilm» (shumorai chorum, soli 1384 sh. dar Tehron) ba tab rasidaast, roygon dastras gasht. Az in khotir ba kormandoni in du kitobkhona va majallai mazkur, inchunin ba ustodoni azizu giromi M. Lutfulloev, YA. Odinaev va N. Qlicheva jihati kumaku dastgiri va maslihatu rohnamoi dar talifi in risola izhori sipos menamoem va az khonandai azizu arjmand baroi kambudiyu norasoihoi joydoshta dar risola puzishu bakhshish mekhohem.

Zindagi va faoliyati Fakhruddini Rozi  Muhiti ijtimoiyu siyosi va falsafiyu fikri dar  zamoni Fakhriddini Rozi.

Maktabhoi ilmiyu adabi va falsafii mardumi forsu tojik dar rohi inkishof va takomuli khud tarikhi darozu tuloniero az sar guzaronidavu baso donishmandonu mutafakkironi barjastavu mashhurro ba jahoniyon muarrifi kardaast. Az jumlai onho Abuabdullo Muhammad ibni Umari Rozi meboshad.

Hayotu faoliyati Fakhruddini Rozi ba nimai duvvumi asrhoi HII (5-hijri) va ogozi asri HIII (6- hijri) rost meoyad, ki dar on ayyom dar hududi khilofati Abbosi, davlathoi mustaqil va nimmustaqil arzi hasti mekardand. Sababi paydoishi in guna davlathoro muarrikhon dar zaf va notavon shudani khilofati Abbosi bad az yak qarni hokimiyati on arzyobi kardaand. «Muddati asri Abbosi az soli 132 (hijri-qamari) to soli 656 h. q., yane 524 sol ast. Saltanati bani Abbos dar in muddat tahavvuloti ziyod yoft va pas az yak qarn, ki dar nihoyati azamat va tavonoi bud ru ba zaf va inhitot nihod»23. Musalam ast ki zafu notavoni va beparvoiyu gaflat metavonad sababi har guna qiyomu shurishhoi iddae az odamon gardad. In va digar omilhoe paydo shudand, ki ahli Huroson ba qiyom barkhostand, dar natija davlathoi mustaqilu nimmustaqil dar hududi khilofati Abbosiyon ba tadrij ba vujud omadand. «Qiyomhoi nizomiyu siyosii Hurosoniyon va zafi umumii dastgohi khilofat muntaj ba tashkili davlathoi nimamustaqil va mustaqili Tohiri, Safori va Somoni gardid».

In jarayon ba khusus az asri chorumi hijri shiddat girift va munjar ba paydoishi hukumathoi mukhtalif gardid, ki bo hamdigar raqobat doshtand va mavqeu nufuzi yakdigarro tang karda az miyon meburdand. Monandi Tohiriyon4, Saforiyon5, Somoniyon6, Gaznaviyon7, Salchuqiyon, Guriyon, Qarakhoniyon va Horazmshohiyon. Jarayoni mazkur to zamoni hamlai Mugul idoma dosht. Az miyoni davlathoi mazkur Somoniyon va Horazmshohiyon bo vijagihoi khosi davroni khud zohirtaru farqkunandatar mahsub meshavand. «Dar in jo sirf yodovar meshavem, ki ahdi Somoniyon yake az durakhshandatarin va olitarin davrahoi tarikhi in sarzamin ast. Az yak taraf rusum va sunani qadim ehyo gasht va az tarafi digar tavajjuh ba sher va adabi dari mujib shud, ki kutubi beshumore talif va tadvin gardad va ulamo va shuaroi nomdore zuhur kunad»

Farqiyati Horazmshohiyon beshtar bo piruz gashtani onho bar raqiboni khud va buzurg sokhtani davlati khesh, meboshad. «Hukumathoi mahalli monandi Atobakoni foris va Ozarboyjon va Luriston va baqoyoi davlati Salchuqi dar magribi Eron dar barobari qudrati Horazmshohiyon yo taslim va yo nobud shudand… Horazmshohiyoni oli Otsiz dar davrai Muhammad ibni Alouddini Tekesh tamomi hukumathoi juzii Eronro tobei khud sokhtand…»

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