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Ensiklopediyai Tojiki

Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik (http://kitobam.com), ki jildi avvali on ba SHumo peshnihod megardad, boz yak dastovardi ilmivu farhangii davroni sohibistiqlolii Tojikiston va nishoni davlatu davlatdorii navini millati sohibtamaddun va kuhanbunyodi tojik meboshad.

kitobi-enciklopediya

Mardumi mo khub medonad, ki kitob durri garonbaho, rahnamoi nekivu nakukori, anisi umum, khullas ganjinai beintihoi manavi buda, hamchunon yak rukni muhimi tamadduni bashari va juzi judoinopaziri zindagii inson, az jumla millati tojikro tashkil medihad. Kitob buzurgtarin mujizoti olam ast, ki ba odam gizoi manavi mebakhshad va ba in mani, manbai nuri manaviyati inson meboshad.

Tarikhi millati mo guvoh ast, ki muborizakhoi qahramonona va taloshhoi fidokoronai guzashtagoni khiradmandamon baroi hifzi zabon va farhangi khud, inchunin kashfiyotu shohkorihoi benaziri ilmu farhang az yak nasl ba nasli digar mahz ba tavassuti kitob to zamoni mo rasidaand. Baroi millati farhangparvar va sohibtamadduni mo dar tuli tarikh kitob baroi poku begazand nigoh doshtani zaboni modari va baqoi minbada yoftani on, tahkimu taqviyat paydo kardani istiqloli milli, khuviyatu khudshinosi va pesh az hama hastii khalqi tojik hamchun shinosnomai millat khizmati benazirro anjom dodaast. Az in jost, ki jahoniyon tojikonro hamchun mardumi kitobdoru kitobdust, farhangparvaru farhangofar va sohibmarifatu mutamaddin etirof kardaand.

Nakhustkitobi khalqi mo Avesto dar davomi hazorsolaho hamchun mahzani benaziri khirad va moyai iftikhori mardumi mutamaddini jahon niz donista shudaast. YAne, hanuz az davrahoe, ki khat paydo shudaast, mardumi mo ba talifu tasnif, jamovarivu ba nizomi muayyan darovardani ofaridahoi adabivu tarikhi, tibbivu falsafi, handasivu riyozi mashgul budaast va in amal az ananoti farzii onho ba hisob meraftaast. Hanuz dar asri X farzandi farzonai khalqi tojik, piri hakimoni Mashriqzamin – SHaykhurrais Abuali ibni Sino kitobi «Donishnoma»-ro ba zaboni tojiki navisht, ki khususiyatu mohiyati ensiklopedi dosht. Minbad iqdomi Ibni Sino az jonibi digar donishmandonu muhaqqiqon idoma yofta, yak silsila asarhoi ilmii jome ba vujud ovarda shudand, ki az in radif kitobhoi Aburayhoni Beruni, Muhammadi Forobi, Nasiruddini Tusi, Hakim Maysariro metavon nombar kard.

Minbad dar asri XX kitobhoi ensiklopedie ba vujud omadand, ki tamomi juziyoti yak fan yo yak davrai muayyani tarikhiro faro megiriftand. Dar kishvari mo niz yakchand ensiklopedihoi universali va sohavi, az jumla «Ensiklopediyai Sovetii Tojik», «Ensiklopediyai adabiyot va sanati tojik», «Ensiklopediyai khojagii qishloki Tojikiston» va «Ensiklopediyai mukhtasari ruzgordori» nashr gardidand. Dar davroni istiqloliyat az jonibi yak guruh olimoni tojik «Donishnomai Rudaki» va «Donishnomai Somoniyon» talif gardidand, ki avvali ba ruzgoru osori Odamushshuaro Abuabdullohi Rudaki va duvumi ba davroni tilloii tarikhi tojikon, yane akhdi Somoniyon bakhshida shudaast, ki baroi khudogohi, tahkimi vahdati milli va rushdi tafakkuri tarikhii mardumi tojik ahamiyati buzurgi ilmi dorand.

Boisi khushholist, ki dar ostonai bistumin solgardi istiqloliyati davlatii Tojikiston kitobi mutabar va mutamadi «Ensiklopediyai Millim Tojik» dastrasi khonandagon gardid va on doir ba guzashtai kishvaramon, tarikhi davlatdorii navini milliamon, az jumla digargunihoi bisyori siyosivu iqtisodi, ijtimoivu tarikhi va tahavvuloti ilmivu farhangii dar bist soli okhir ba vujudomada malumot medihad.

Albatta, talifu tasnifi mavodi ilmiyu ommavi dar shakli ensiklopedi kori nihoyat dushvor, vale puriftikhor meboshad. Az in ru, ba muallifonu muharriron va hamai onhoe, ki dar tahiyai in kitobi bunyodii milliamon sahmdorand, komyobivu barori korhoi ejodi orzu menamoyam. Tojikon az qadimtarin khalqhoi rui dunyoyand, ki dar masiri tarikhi bashari bo aqdu tafakkuri khesh, bo zakovatu istedodi balandpoyai khud tamadduni farhangii boy va ibratomuzero ba vujud ovardaand.

Jam ovardanu ba nizomi muayyan darovardani osori ilmi, tarikhi, adabi, farhangi va falsafiyu etiqodi-mazhabi az davroni qadim, az ibtidoi shukufoii tamadduni oriyoi, az zamoni tadvinu talif shudani kitobi muqaddasi qavmhoi oriyoi tabor Avesto to in ham ananai farzist, ki insoniyat novobasta az irqu najodu millat az on bahra mebarad. Ba rishtai tahrir kashida shudani asarhoi ensiklopedi baroi mardumi tojiku fors padidai nav nest va asarhoi ensiklopediya shabehe chun «Bundahish», «Dinkard», «Al-Qonun», «Donishnomai Uloi», «Matla-ul-ulum va majma-ul-funun», «Tarikhi Tabari», «Sivon-ul-hikmat», «Al-Fehrist», «Ajoib- ul-buldon», «Surat-ul-arz» va tazkiravu bayozhoi sershumor namunahoi kitobhoi ensiklopediya monandi qadimand. Mafhumi ensiklopediya hamchun majmuai donishho, malumotu ittiloot dar dunyoi qadim paydo shuda boshad ham, asosan dar davrai duyumi tamaddun  az ogozi asrhoi miyonavu davrai Ehyo talifi ensiklopediyai daqiq bo maqolahoi murattabi alifboi ogoz gardid va az in ham ahli ilmu marifat va farhang ba in mahzani bebahoi ilmu farhang beshtar tavajjuh namudand. Ensiklopediyahoi «Laruss» (Fransiya, 10 jild), «Espos» (Ispaniya, 70 jild), «Italyana» (Italiya, 36 jild), «Britanika» (Angliya, 24 jild), «Makropediya» (Angliya, 20 jild), «Amerikana» (SHMA, 16 va 30 jild), «Ensiklopediya Brokgauza» (Germaniya, 20 jild), «Bolshaya Sovetskaya Ensiklopediya» (SSSR, 65, 50 va 30 jild, 3 nashr) az nakhustensiklopediyahoi mukammali dunyoyand, ki digar ensiklopediyahoi khurdu buzurgi davlatu khalqiyat va mahalhoi alohida ba asosi tajribai in ensiklopediyaho tadvi­nu sokhta shudaand.

CHun kitobhoi ensiklopediyavi tamomi sohaho va juzitarin janbahoi zindagiro dar bar megirand, mavridi niyozi hameshagii mardum buda, ba har munosibatu zarurat az onho istifoda burda meshavad. Hamchunin baroi ogohii komil doshtan az tarikhi voqeii guzashtai millat, khabardor budan az sarnavishti purshebu farozi khalqi khesh, oshnoii beshtar paydo kardan bo merosi boyi farhangi va rasmu oyini peshguzashtagon, voqif gardidan az koru paykor va zindaginomai farzonafarzandhoi millati khud ensiklopediyahoi bisyorjilda navishta meshavand. Dar davlathoi mutamaddini dunyavii mustaqilirodatu komiliktisod ensiklopediyahoi milli-universali dar barobari Parcham, Nishon va Surudi Milli alomati istiqlol, ganovati manavi, iqtidor va istiqrori mamlakat meboshand.

Binobar in bo Farmoni Prezidenti Tojikiston dar davlati sohibistiqlol, kuhanfarhang, mutamaddin, dunyavi va huquqbunyodi mo niz ba tahiyau tahvini ensik­lopediyai millii bisyorjilda pardokhta shud, zero dar kitobhoi ensiklopedi tari­khi kishvar, ilm, iqtisodiyot, khojagii dehot, madaniyat, adabiyotu sanat, urfu odat, marosimho, hayotu faoliyati shakhsiyathoi buzurg, khodimoni marufi jamiyat, namoyandagoni mumtozi ilmu marifat, adibon, hunarmandon va sanatvaroni maruf darj khohand shud. Dar ayni zamon dar sahifahoi «Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik» bakhshe az matolib oid ba tarikhi jahon, muhimtarin dastovardhoi ilmu tekhnika va farhangi jahoni, hayot va koru paykori nobigagoni jahoni, ki az jihate ba hayoti millati mo irtibot dorand va yo ibratomuzand, sabt khohad gardid. Zero «tajribai tarikhi nishon medihad, ki hej yak khalq nametavonad biduni bahravar shudan az ta­madduni mushtaraqi millathovu qavmhoi hamjavor ba sari khud millati tavonovu bofarhang sozad va dar tuli hazorsolaho bobaqovu poyanda monda tavonad»! Rohi peshgiriftai kishvari mo, ki tarafdori siyosati etirof va ehtiromi meyorhoi huquqi baynalkhalqi, dakholat nakardan ba istiqloliyati siyosi va iqtisodii kishvarhoi gayr, rushdu tavseai hamkoriho va robitahoi manfiatbakhshi dutarafa bo mamlakathoi dunyost, hamesha az arzishhoi millivu farhangii tojikon dar tamomi sathho va arsaho pushtiboni mekunad.

Kalima-istilohoti ezohtalabi zaboni tojiki va kalimayu istilohoti vobasta ba farogirii doirai mavzuoti umumi-universali khele bisyorand, vale «Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik» tanho mamultarin istilohotro mavridi sharhu tafsiri daqiq va mukhtasar qaror dodaast. Dar ravandi tahriru tadvini maqolaho khatohoi mamulu omii dar davomi solhoi guzashta baananadaromada ba shakli durust isloh shudand, to ki minbad bo istinod ba ensiklopediya saheh talaffuz va navishta shavand; Musi – Muso, Isi – Iso, taqvi – taqvo (ba istisnoi nazm), avf – afv, afrodho – afrod, ashkhoson – ashkhos, ashorho – ashor, mavodho – mavod, voloiyat – volo, zaruriyat – zarurat, lozimi – lozima, ijroish – ijro, Quvayt – Quvayt, Abudabi – Abuzabi, avvalo – avvalan, sodda – soda, oddi – odi, favqulodda – favquloda, shohigari – shohi va gayra.

YO khud, masalan kalimai inobat, ki manoi zori, pushaymoni va tavbaro doshta, soliyoni daroz ba manoi kalimai etibor istifoda megardid, dar kitob ba manoi aslii khesh istifoda shuda, dar manoi etibor korburd nagardid. Dar tadvinu tahiyai matni maqoloti kitob talabotu nukoti Qonuni Jumhurii Tojikiston «Dar borai zaboni davlatii Jumhurii Tojikiston» va Imloi zaboni tojiki rioya gardidaand.

Sarredaksiyai ilmii Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik az ibtidoi ogozi kori kitobi bisyorjildai «Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik» ba muassisahoi ilmi, idorahoi davlati, donishgoh va donishkadahoi oli, ittifoqhoi ejodi, mutakhassisoni alohidai tamomi sohahoi ilmu farhang va hatto pajuhishgohhoi khorijiyu mutakhassisini judogonai burunmarzi bo Loihai lugatnomai nashri mazkur murojiat namuda, onhoro ba hamkori va madad davat karda bud, ki dar natija Lugatnoma mavridi muhokimai vasei ahdi jamiyat qaror girifta to andozae takmil yoft. Tajribai nashr shudani 8 jildi Ensiklopediyai Sovetii Tojik mabni bar taqrizu naqdhoi farovo ni dar vasoiti akhbori omma ba tab rasida sobit namud, ki dar aksari erodhoi mutakhassison va khonandagoni odi ba joy doda shudani shakhsiyatho dar kitob sukhan meraft. Ba khotiri minbad jilavgiri kardan az chunin erodho dar Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik Qarori Hukumati Jumhurii Tojikiston (№ 439 az 2 sentyabri soli 2010) «Dar borai meyorhoi vorid namudani shakhsiyathoi marufi tarikhi va muosir ba «Ensiklopedi­yai Millii Tojik» ba tasvib rasid, ki Sarredaksiya tibqi on amal menamoyad.

Vobasta ba tatbiqi tekhnologiyai navtarini sahifabandiyu oroishi kitob va darnazardoshti sifati chopi kitob az aksho va rasmhoi aksaran siyohu safedi kuhnashuda, ki barqaror kardanashon gayriimkon bud, sarfi nazar gardid. Hamchunin rasmi shakhsiyathoe, ki bo vujudi isrori kormandoni Sarredaksiya aksi khudro peshnihod nakardand, az jildi avval berun mondand. Hajmi maqolaho vobasta ba mavkeyu manzalati mavzui peshnihodshuda, muhimiyati on va taklifi muallifon bo maddi nazar giriftani malumoti ilovagi baroi muhaqqiqoni oyanda muayyan va tayin gardidaast.

Aksari maqolahoi ensiklopediro vobasta ba takhassushoi gunogun olimoni maruf navishtaand. Tamomi maqolahoi jildi avvali EMT-ro olimon-mutakhassisoni judogonai sohahoi gunoguni ilm, azoi SHuroi ilmiyu tahririi az tarafi Hukumati Jumkhurii Tojikiston tasdiqshuda khondavu maqul donista, ba chop tavsiya namudaand.

Jildi avvali kitob janbai ilmiyu ommavi doshta nakhustensiklopediyai millist, ki baroi ommai vasei khonandagon nashr meshavad va az in jihat shoyad ishtiboh doshta boshad. Binobar in, az khonandagoni muhtaram samiman khohishmandem andeshavu peshnihodhoi khudro dar borai jildhoi EMT ba nishonii zerin irsol namoyand: 734018, sh. Dushan­be, kh. N. Qaroboev 17, faks (992 37) 233 35 70, E-mail:tojikencyclopedia.sot

Sarredaksiyai ilmii Ensiklopediyai Millii Tojik

TARZI ISTIFODAI ENSIKLOPEDIYA

Dar «Ensiklopediyai Millim Tojik» maqolaho bo tartibi alifbo joy giriftaand. Agar nomi maqola az du yo az in ham bisyortar kalima tarkib yofta boshad, tartibi alifboii dokhilii inguna ibora yo nomho az rui kalima va harfhoi minbada muayyan megardad: ABDII GUNOBODI, ABDII ZOMINI, ABDII ISFAHONI, AB­DII KOBULI, yo maqolai ASPIRATSIYA badi maqolai ASP meoyad.

Modda yo istilohi asosii ensiklopedi (yane nomi maqola) bo hurufi siyohi rost navishta shuda, bo maqsadi durust talaffuz kardani on bar boloi hijoi matlub alomati zada (‘) guzoshta shudaast.

Dar maqolahoi tarjumaiholii ensiklopediya nasab hamchun moddai asosi bo hurufi siyohi rost, vale nom, nomi padar bo hurufoti muqarrari meoyad: ABDOLOV Nazarbek, ABDUVALIEVA Mavjuda Muminovna.

Dar shakli navishti hozira nomu nasab hardu bo hurufi siyohi rost navishta meshavand: ABDUGAFFORI ABDUJABBOR, ABDULQODIRI RAHIM va hamin tartib dar navishti nomhoi maqolahoi sharhiholii niyogonamoi rioya shudaast: ABDULAZIZ MAHDUM, ABDULAZIZI  MAROGAI, ABDULMALIKI JUVAYNI, ABUYUSUF YAQUBI ANSORI. Agar shakhs bo nomi khud, takhallus yo laqabash shuhrat doshta boshad bo hamin nomi marufash joy doda shudaast: ABAI, ABDULVOSE, LOHUTI, RUDAKI, JOMI. SHakhsone, ki bo nomi tarkibi shuhrat dorand (misli Nek London), on hissai tarkibii nom, ki ba padarashon mutaalliq ast, dar joyi avval va ismi khudashon dar joyi duyum guzoshta shud. CHunonchi: LONDON Nek, BODLER SHarl va gayra.

Dar maqolahoi tarjumaiholi badi nom, nomi padar, kuniya, takhallus dar qavsayn ruz, moh, sol va joyi tavallud (agar malum boshand) doda meshavand: ABDULAZIZI MAHSUM (soli tavallud va vafotash nomalum), ABDULAHADHON (16. 3. 1859, Karmina – 6. 1. 1911, hamon jo), ABDULVOSEI JABALI Badeuzzamon ibni Abdunome ibni Rabei Garjistoni (soli tavalludash nomalum – vafotash 1160), ABDULGAFFOR MAHDUMI BULBUL mutakhallis ba Favji (1879, Hujand – 1979, hamon jo). Joe, ki mahali tavallud yo vafot, yo sanai tavallud yo vafot nishon doda nashudaast, yaqin ast, ki muallif chunin malumotro az makhazho paydo nakardaast.

Olimonu hakimoni marufi YUnoni Qadim, bo hamon nome, ki dar adabiyoti arab va fors-tojik mamulan duchor meoyand, sabt gardida, nomi asliashon dar qavsayn doda meshavad: AFLOTUN (Platon), BATLIMUS (Ptolemey), BUQROT (Gippo­krat). Vale agar chunin ulamo dar bayni khalq bo nomi arabiashon chandon marufiyat nadoshta boshand, bo nomi aslii yunoniashon sabt gardida, shakli muarrabash dar qavsayn joy doda meshavad: PIFAGOR (Faysoguris), ARHIMED (Arashmidus).

SHoironu navisandagon, adibon, ahdi ilmu farhangi chi muosir va chi guzashta bo takhallus, ismi adabie, ki intikhob kardaand, yo ba hamon nom mashhurand, joy doda shudaand: LOIK SHerali, BAHROM FIRUZ, RAHIM  JALIL, IKROMI N Jalol, ANORA Ostonova.

Bad az takhallus, ismi adabi yo nasab, nom va nomi padari ashkhos dar shakli hujjati (shinosnomaviash) doda meshavand.

Kalimahoe, ki pas az nomi bo harfhoi siyoh navishtashudai maqola bo yakkaharfho (harfhoi baynashon fosilador) omadaand, murodif yo tabiri digari hamon nom yo iboraand: ABAT, bioton, difos; ANOR, nor, rumon; ABOZIYA, iboziya; ASAL, angubin, shahd. YAkkaharfi baroi nishon dodani mansubiyati in istiloh yo mafhum ba yagon sohai ilm yo hunar niz ba kor burda meshavad: ABBREVIATURA dar musiqi, ABLYATSIYA, 1)dar tekhnika, AHD, dar huquq va gayra.

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