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DAVRAI INKISHOFI BADIJANINI

Az vaqti tavallud shudani organizm yo az parda berun shudan, davrai janini ba okhir rasida, davrai inkishofi badijanini ogoz meyobad. Davrai badijanini purra va nopurra meshavad. Dar davrai inkishofi purrai janin az tukhm yo batni modar organizme paydo meshavad, ki hamai uzv va khosiyathoi fardi boligro dorad (masalan, dar hazandagon, parrandagon, shirkhuron). Inkishofi badijaninii in guna hayvonot asosan sabzish va ba balogat rasidan ast. Dar inkishofi nopurra yo metamorfozi az tukhm kirmina paydo shuda, on sokhti nisbatan sodda va uzvhoi makhsuse dorad, ki dar holati boligi dida nameshavad.

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Kirmina inkishof yofta, tadrijan uzvhoi kirminagii on ba uzvhoi organizmi bolig mubaddal megardand. Hamin tariq, dar metamorfoz uzvhoi kirminagi az bayn rafta, uzvhoi bo hayvoni kalon khos paydo meshavand. Aknun chand misoli inkishofi nopurrai badijaniniro dida mebaroem.

Dar astsidiya (az navi khordadoron) kirmina paydo meshavad, ki doroi hamai khususiyathoi asosii khordadoron ast: khorda, naychai asab, surokhi galsama (rasmi 7.7). Kirminaho ozodona shino karda, bad bo yagon jismi zeriobi mechaspand va metamorfozro az sar meguzaronand. Dar in vaqt dum nest shuda, khorda, mushakho, naychahoi asab ba hujayrahoi alohida judo megardand va duchori fagositoz meshavand. Az silsilai asabi kirmina faqat on hujayrahoe boqi memonand, ki az onho girehhoi asab paydo meshavand.

Sokhti badani astsidiyai bolig, ki dar holati chaspida hayot ba sar mebarad, ba sokhti organizmi hayvonoti muhrador monandi nadorad. Faqat donistani khususiyathoi ontogenez imkon medihand, ki joi onro dar sistemahoi olami hayvonot muayyan sozand. Sokhti kirminai onho nishon medihad, ki paydoishi in mavjudot az khordadorho buda, ozodona hayot ba sar mebarand. Dar rafti metamorfoz astsidiya ba hayoti beharakat meguzarad, binobar in sokhti on sodda gashtaast.

Kirminai obkhokiho kaflesak buda, baroi on javfi galsama, khati pahlugi, dili dukhonagi va yak gardishi khun khos ast (rasmi 7.8). Dar rafti metamorfoz, ki zeri tasiri gadud-hoi siparshakl ba amal meoyad, dum va khati pahlui nest shuda, poyho paydo meshavand, shushu gardishi duyumi khun inkishof meyoband.

Dar in mavrid baze khosiyathoi monand ba kaflesak va mohiyon ba nazar merasad (khati pahlui, sokhti dil va gardishi khun, javfi galsama). Misoli digari metamorfoz inkishofi hasharot meboshad. Kirminai shabparakho (rasmi 7.9) yo kirminai suzanak vobasta ba sokht, tarzi hayot va joi zist az jonvari boligi khud farq mekunad. Boyad guft, ki metamorfoz bo tagyir yoftani tarzi hayot va muhiti zist sakht aloqamand ast.

Ahamiyati metamorfoz az on iborat ast, ki kirmina mustaqil gizo girifta, kalon meshavad va mavodi hujayragiro jam mekunad. In baroi tashakkuli uzvhoi doimii jonvari kalon lozimand. Gayr az in, ozod zindagi kardani kirminaho, ki ba yagon mavod mechaspand yo holati parazitiro az sar meguzaronand, baroi pahnshavii namud va gustarishi areali zisti onho muhim ast. Tagyiryobii tarzi hayot va muhiti zist dar rafti inkishofi fardi, ki zimni on davrai kirminagii baze hayvonot dar muhiti tamoman digar meguzarad va manbai gizoi digar dorand, nisbat ba fardhoi kalon surati muborizai dokhilinamudiro baroi sukunat past mekunad. Davomoti davrai inkishofi badijanini gunogun ast. Masalan, agar hashorati yakruza dar holati kirminagi 2-3 sol zindagi kunand, dar holati boligi az 2-3 soat to 2-3 ruz umr mebinand.

Dar bisyor holatho davrai badijanini nisbatan daroz davom meyobad. On dar odam to davrai balogatro darbar megirad. Davrai ba balogat rasidani odamro davrai kamolot ham menomand. Davrai badi balogat davrai pironsoli ast.

Dar shirkhuron va odam idomai hayot ba davomoti davraibalogat (jinsi) va haml vobasta ast. Vale davomoti hayot nisbat ba davrai boligshavi dar antoginez 5-8 marotiba meboshad (jadvali 7.1).

Inkishofi badijanini ba buzurg shudani hajmi organizm ovarda merasonad. In davraro inkishof menomand.

Inkishof du tarz – nomuayyan va muayyan meshavad. Inkishofi nomuayyan dar tamomi tuli hayot davom karda, inkishofi muayyan fosilai muayyani vaqtro dar bar megirad. Inkishofi nomuayyan dar darakhton, baze narmbadanho, muhradoron, mohiyon va khoyandagon dida meshavad.

Dar bisyor hayvonot inkishofi jinsi badi ba balogat rasidan khotima meyobad. Dar odam sabzish va inkishof to 20-25 solagi davom mekunad. Dar pironsoli jismi odam tadrijan khurd shuda, faoliyati gadudhoi usorai dokhili (endokrini) tagyir meyobad, gametogenez qat gashta, ravandhoi fiziologi sust meshavand. Hamin tavr, inkishofi badi janini ba sabzish, balogat va afzoish ovarda merasonad.

Dar bisyor jonvaroni sokhtashon sodda davrai afzoish az kirminagi ogoz yofta, bo metomorfoz ba okhir merasad.

Savolho baroi sanjish:

  1. Inkishofi badijanini chi guna ast?
  2. Inkishofi purra va nopurrai badijanini chist?
  3. Oid ba sokhti kirminagi misol ored va gued, ki on khosi kadom jonvar ast.
  4. Inkishofi nomuayyan va muayyan chist? Misolho ored.

Istilohot:

  1. Davrai naslguzori – davrai ontogenezi badi balogati jinsi, ki dar in vaqt khudtakrorshavi mumkin ast.
  2. Inkishofi nopurra – tarzi inkishofi badijanini, ki kirmina az pardai tukhm berun meshavad.
  3. Inkishofi purra – tarzi inkishofi badijanini, ki hini az tukhm baromadan yo az modar tavallud shudan naslho khosiyat va uzvhoi organizmi kalonro dorand.
  4. Metamorfoz – ravandi ivazshavii uzvhoi kirminagi ba sokhti fardhoi bolig.
  5. Davrai to nasldihi – davrai inkishofi pesh az nasldihiro az sar guzaronidan, dar inkishofi nopurra davrai kirminagi va dar inkishofi purra boshad, davri kudakist.
  6. Davrai badijanini – davrai inkishof az vaqti tavallud (yo az tukhm baromadan) to davrai favt.

 

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