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DARD

dardDARD (Dolor, algos), ehsosi noguvor, bazan toqatfarsoest, ki aksaran hangomi tasiri nihoyat shadid yo tabohkor ba organizm paydo meshavad. D. ifodai fardii illati organizm yo ikhtiloli baze vazifahoi on meboshad. D. dar jarayoni tahavvuloti olami organiki ba ogohsozandai khavfi bemori tabdil yofta, omili muhimi biologie gardid, ki mavjudiyati hayotro tamin mekunad. Muvofiqi gufti I. P. Pavlov dard dar hifzi sokhti tomi organizm hamai on chiro, ki ba jarayoni hayot khalal rasonda mutobiqati organizmro bo muhit khalaldor menamoyad, raf mesozad. Paydoishi D. nerui muhofizi organizmro bahri rafi angezahoi dardovar va barqaror gardidani faoliyati mutadili uzvho va sistemahoi fiziologi safarbar mekunad. Dar barobari in D. insonro dar azobi sakht monda, uro az oromi va qobiliyati kori mahrum mesozad, dar baze mavridho boisi inkishofi holati ba hayot khavfnok – shok megardad.
Odatan, chi qadare, ki illati pust, luobparda va ustukhonparda vaznintar (yane shiddati angezandaho har qadar beshtar) boshad, D. hamono qavitar meshavad. Hangomi khalal yoftani faoliyati uzvhoi darun ehsosi D. hamesha ba on muvofiqat namekunad. Mas., az andak khalal yoftani kori rudaho dardi sakht paydo meshavad, hol on ki illati jiddii magzi sar, khun va gurda metavonad bedard guzarad. Organizm ba angezishi D. bo tagyiroti gunogun javob megardonad (mas., raghoi khunguzar tang, fishori khun baland, darajai lakhtabandi va miqdori qandi khun meafzoyad). Azbaski tarzu khususiyati ehsosi D. nihoyat gunogun ast, onro ba shadid, sust, khalamonand, sakht, fishorovar, suzishnok, sim-sim va g. judo mekunand. Bemor D.-ro bevosita dar joi osebdidai badan, nazdik va yo durtar az on (mas., hangomi amrozi dil dar dast yo shonai chap) ehsos menamoyad. D. az manbai paydoish ba joyhoi muayyani organizm pahn meshavad. D.-i az jihati khususiyat va tadbirhoi peshgiri mushobeh bazan yakjoya bo bemorihoi gunogun, az jumla bo chunin kasalihoe zuhur meyobad, ki onho yorii tibbii favriro talab khohand kard. Aksar vaqt D.-i dil, shikam va sardard boisi holathoi baroi hayot khavfnok meshavand.
Dardi dil nimai chapi qafasi sina yo sari sinaro faro megirad. On sikhzananda, sim-sim yo fishorovar buda, yakbora paydo meshavad yo tadrijan avj girifta, kutohmuddat yo bardavom ast; boisi illat yoftani nafaqat khudi dil, balki uzvhoi dig. niz megardad. D.-hoi nogahoniyu tazyiqovar va shadidi sari sina, ki ba dasti chapu shona pahn shuda, hangomi harakati jismoni yo oromi paydo meshavand, khosi bemorii ziqi dil buda, kumaki tibbii favriro talab mekunand. Hissi D. dar qismi chapi sanduqi sina dar natijai illati uzvhoi ba dil nazdik – pardai shush, khirnoy, reshachahoi asab, khudi dil (miokardit, nuqsi dil) va bemorihoi dig. (mas., kamkhuni) paydo meshavad. Aksar vaqt D.-i atrofi dil ba berabtii kori asabi dil hangomi nevroz, ikhtiloli uzvhoi endokrini, zahroludi (mas., dar tamokukashho va ashkhosi mayzada) vobasta ast. Muolijai D.-i dil ba sababhoe, ki boisi paydoishi D. gardidaast, aloqamand buda, onro faqat dukhtur muayyan karda metavonad. Dar mavridi sakht ba dard omadani dil favran khob kardan yo nishastan lozim; ba zeri zabon nitroglitserin va agar on naboshad, validol meguzorand. Agar badi 30 daq. D. namonad, ba sari dil khardalkogaz guzoshta, dukhturro davat mekunand.
Dardi shikam niz dar asnoi bemorihoi bisyor, az jumla amroze, ki muolija bo jarrohiro talab mekunand, paydo meshavad. Ba chunin bemoriho appenditsiti shadid, shikof shudani tanai meda yo ruda (beshtar hangomi zakhmi meda), pechishi rudaho, khunravii ziyod ba batn (beshtar dar mavridi hamli khoriji bachadoni), pankreatiti shadid va g. mansuband. D.-i nogahoni shikam ba bemorihoi zikrshuda khos ast. D. az ibtido metavonad chun zarbai khanjar padid oyad, khususan D.-i zakhmi shikofshudai devorai meda yo rudai duvozdahangushta. D. hangomi appenditsit soat ba soat avj megirad.
Hangomi pechidani rudaho D. har zamon shiddat yofta, bayni fosilahoi khuruji on andake sust meshavad. Kafidani tukhmguzar (naycha)-i bachadon dar asnoi homilagii khoriji bachadon on boisi D.-i shadid megardad (dard andak sust meshavad). Vale paydoishi chunin khususiyathoi D. chandon shart nest, zero onho baroi durust farq kardani appenditsiti shadid az homilagii khoriji bachadon yo az shikof shudani zakhmi tanai meda imkon namedihand. D.-i sakhttarini shikam hama vaqt jarrohii favrii uzvhoi dokhili shikamro taqozo namekunad. Mas., az D.-i gurda niz bemor nihoyat besaranjom shuda, khudro ba chor taraf mezanad, az kati khob ba farsh mefaroyad; dar asnoi gazaki shush niz shikami kudak sakht dard mekunad va g.
Ba dardi shikam, ki tabobati favriro mekhohad, ikhtiloli vazi umumii organizm – sadama, holati tablarza va behushi (az khunravii daruni) khosand. Vale chunin illatho hangomi bemorihoi digar niz ruy doda, faqat az vazninii holati bemor darak medihand.
Dukhtur alomathoi gunoguni D.-i shikamro muqoisa karda, sababi paydoishi onro muayyan va usuli muolijaro intikhob menamoyad. Agar khudi bemor yo atrofiyoni u baroi fahmidani sababi D. va tabobati on kushish namoyand, aksar vaqt holati bemorro vaznintar megardonand yo zarurati jarrohiro ba takhir meandozand. In pesh az hama ba bemorihoi kudakon dakhl dorad, zero ba volidon odat shudaast, ki D.-i shikamu qay kardani kudakonro aksaran «girifti meda» mepindorand. Dar in mavrid az vasoiti dastras, mas., davohoi isholovar, imola, doruhoi rafi dard yo garmkunak (grelka) istifoda mebarand. Kushishi toza kardani rudaho dar asnoi har kadom bemorii shadidi uzvhoi darun, ki jarrohiro talab mekunad, bagoyat khavfnok ast. Doruhoi mushil va imola tahrika (harakati mavjvor)-i rudahoro angekhta, ba iltihoq (ba ham chaspidani)-i rudaho mone meshavand, ki oqibat ba rekhtani fasod yo muhtavoi medayu ruda ba javfi shikam ovarda merasonad.
Hangomi pechidani rudaho vasoiti mazkur illati rudahoro badtar karda, zimni khunravi az batn ba bastani raghoi khunrav khalal merasonand.
Doruhoi rafi D. muvaqqatan sabuki orand ham, ayni zamon zuhuroti bemoriro murakkab, tashkhisi durusti onro mushkil mekunand; gayr az on, odatan dar chunin mavrid davati dukhtur mavquf guzoshta meshavad. Istifodai garmkunak ba shidat giriftani jarayoni iltihob yo khunravi musoidat mekunad.
Dar khotir dored: hangomi appenditsiti shadid, surokh shudani devorai meda, basta shudani rudaho va homilagii khoriji bachadon hatto chand soat ba takhir mondani jarrohi boisi oqibati nihoyat bad megardad. Dar har mavridi D.-i shadidi shikam ba takhminu khudmuolija vaqt sarf nakarda, hamono dukhturro davat kuned.

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