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JAMOATHOI IBTIDOI DAR OSIYOI MIYONA

Osori paleoliti poin.

Zamoni paydoishi nakhustin odamonro dar sarzamini Osiyoi Miyona ba tavri yaqin muayyan kardan khele dushvor ast, zero osori az hama qadimai hayoti onho boqi namondaast. Ba gumoni baze olimon, guyo Osiyoi Miyona dar dokhili mintaqai odamshavii maymun voqe gardida budaast[1]. harchand in aqida mamul va maqbuli umum mahsub yofta nametavonad, bo vujudi in kashfi qadimtarin yodgorihoi hayoti odamiro dar in sarzamin naboyad berun az imkon donist.

Soli 1953 A.P. Okladnikov dar rudi Unarchai nazdiki daryoi Norini Qirgiziston az devorai regii sufai qadimai pleystotseni miyona qayroqi kaloni dasti inson rasidaro, ki yak tarafi on ba tegi darozi barjastai kamoni monand ast, paydo namud. CHunin olat dar ilmi bostonshinosi bo nomi chopper – olati qayroqsang mashhur ast[2]. Pas az chand soli bozyofti in olati qadima dar mahalhoi mukhtalifi Osiyoi Miyona boz dah makoni on kashf gardid[3]. In guna olat dar bisyor nohiyahoi Olami Kuhan ba khubi malum buda, qadimtarin madaniyati insoni – madaniyati qayroqsangro tavsif menamoyad[4].

neolit-768x492Tahlili tipologi nishon medihad, ki olati qayroqsangi Osiyoi Miyona bo madaniyati ba istiloh suonii davrai paleoliti hinduston khele shabohat dorad[5]. Az in chunin barmeoyad, ki in du kishvar dar davrai paleoliti poin yak rohi umumii tarikhiro tay kardaast. CHunon ki az madrakhoi geologi malum meshavad, ahli madaniyati qayroqsang dar davrai piryakhhoi nakhust va yakhbandii ris, yane dar davrai pleystotseni miyona, besh az 200 hazor sol qabl az in zindagi ba sar burdaand. On vaqtho chunin hayvonot, az qabili jinshoi qadimai fil, asp, mamont va bizonhoi shokhdaroz, namudhoi gunoguni karkadan vujud doshtaand. Az rui baze dalelho, odam dar on zamon khele kam budaast.

Olati navi digar dastkolahoi sangi, ki baroi paleoliti poini Evropa bisyor kharakternok ast, faqat dar qismati garbi mamlakat – dar Turkmaniston paydo gardid.

Baze olimon izhori shubha mekardand, ki Osiyoi Miyona in qadar barvaqt maskani odam shuda budaast, zero nishonahoi zindagii inson dar in mahal avvalo, ki khele kam, dar baze joyho, alohida-alohida yoft meshudand va soni, aslan dar qabathoi az hama boloii zaminhoi sohili daryoho ba nazar merasidand. Vale inak soli 1973 dar magzi zardkhoki Qarotogi YOvon va sipas, dar haft joi janubi Tojikiston dar magzi khokhoe, ki dar chuqurii 50–65 metr voqe meboshand, oloti sangi ba dast omad. hafriyoti du boshishgoh – boshishgohi Qarotogi 1 va Lohuti-1 nishon dod, ki dar in jo nishonahoi boshishgohi nav, osori madaniyati to ba hol nomalume hastand, ki on «madaniyati Qarotog» nom girift. Tarikhi in qabati arkheologi 200–150 hazor sol ast, ki inro bo madrakoti geologi muayyan karda, bad bo usuli termolyuministsensiya aniq namudand. Madaniyati Qarotog az jihati tavsifoti khud ba madaniyati qayroqsang mansub ast va az madaniyati suonii nimjazirai hinduston, ki dar bolo nombar shuda bud, yagon farqi kazoi nadorad. Badi in kashfiyot joi shubha nest, ki dar Tojikiston va Osiyoi Miyona saravval toifahoe maskun shudand, ki ba davrahoi madaniyati qayroqsang taalluq doshtand[6]

[1] Nesturkh M.F., 1964.

[2] Okladnikov A.P., 1966 b, s. 19.

[3] Ranov V.A., 1966.

[4] Nig.: masalan, Movius H.L. 1944; Luaduy L. S.V., 1951 va u.

[5] Ranov V.A., 1964 a.

[6] Ranov V.A.., 1976.

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