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Biologiya chist va chiro meomuzad?

Biologiya az kalimai yunonii bio – hayot va logos – ilmgirifta shuda, manoyash ilm dar borai hayot ast. In istilohro dar yak vaqt bo L.Treviranus bori avval soli 1802 tabiatshinosi marufi faronsa Jan Batist Lamark bo maqsadi fahmishi mohiyati ilm dar borai hayot chun hodisai makhsusi tabiat peshnihod kardaast. Biologiya majmui ilmhoi biologi buda, sokht, faoliyati hayotguzaroni va muhiti sukunati mavjudoti zinda – bakteriyaho, zanburugho, rastani, hayvonot va odamro meomuzad.

biologiya chist

CHaro biologiyai umumi meguyand? SHumo dar sinfhoi 4-9 ba yak qator fanhoi judogona, masalan, abiatshinosi, botanika, zoologiya, anatomiya shinos shuda buded. Dar khotir dored, ki har yake az in fanho ba omuzishi yak shokhai makhsusi hayot bakhshida shudaast. Masalan, dar vaqti omukhtani tabiatshinosi ba tavri umumi dar borai tabiati zinda va gayrizinda, dar vaqti omukhtani botanika, zoologiya va anatomiya boshad, ba olami nabototu hayvonot, inson, ba sokhti beruni va darunii onho, hamchunin ba qonunhoi makhsusi faoliyati hayotii mavjudoti zinda shinos gashted.

Hangomi omukhtani biologiyai umumi boshad, shumo ba qonunhoi umumie, ki onhoro olimon dar ilmhoi biokhimiya, sitologiya, janinshinosi, geneteka, talimoti evolyutsioni, ekologiya va gayra tadqiq mekunand, shinos khohed shud, chunonchi, bo yagonagii tabiat, mubodilai moddaho, inkishofi tabiati zinda, inkishofi tarikhii mavjudoti zinda, tagyirpaziri, az nasl ba nasl guzashtani alomatho, asosi hujayravi doshtani mavjudoti zinda, ogozi inkishof az hujayratukhmi bordor yo bordornashuda, mutobiqshavii organizmho ba sharoiti muhiti zist va gayra.

Ba tavri digar guem, olimon ba vositai fanhoi umumibiologi mavjudoti zindaro bo rohhoi gunogun omukhta, az natijai on khulosai ilmii umumibiologi mebarorand. Masalan, organizmi mavjudoti serhujayra asosi hujayravi dorad, alomatho az nasl ba nasl meguzarand, mubodilai moddaho mavjud ast va gayra. Dar vaqti omuzishi bobhoi alohidai kitob shumo ba in bovari hosil khohed kard.

Dar tabiati zinda mavjudoti benihoyat gunogun vomekhurand. Alhol olimon ziyoda az 600 hazor namudi rastani, 1,5 mln. namudi hayvonot, namudhoi ziyodi zanburugho va prokariothoro malum kardaand. Tadqiqotu justujuyho dar in bobat idoma dorand. Muayyan sokhtani khosiyathoi umumii mavjudoti zinda, muqarrar kardani sababhoi gunogunshakli, robita, sokht va sharoiti muhiti zist vazifai asosii biologiya meboshad.

YAke az masalahoi jiddii omuzishi in fan inkishof va qonuniyathoi paydoishi hayot dar rui Zamin – talimoti evolyutsioni ast. Darki onho asosi jahonbinii ilmi buda, ba on fan shumo dar sinfi 11 shinos meshaved.

Holo robitai shokhahoi gunoguni biologiya ba fanhoi digar, az jumla, fizika, khimiya, matematika, astronomiya, kibernetika gustarish yoftaast va dar zaminai onho fanhoi biofizika, biokhimiya, bionika va gayraho paydo shudaand.

Komyobihoi solhoi okhiri biologiya boisi paydoishi raviyahoi navi ilmi gardidand. Onho hamchun fasli mustaqil ba majmuifanhoi biologi hamroh shudaand. Masalan, kashf shudani sokhtori molekulavii gen baroi tashkilyobii ilmi (yo fanni) muhandisii geni zamina faroham ovard. Bo yorii ilmi mazkur mavjudoti navero paydo mekunand, ki onho, hatto, dar tabiat duchor nameoyand, dar onho geni begona vujud dorad va doroi alomatu khosiyathoi irsii kombinativi va mutatsioni meboshand.

Dar amal istifoda burdani dastovardhoi biologiya imkon dod, ki zothoi sermahsuli chorvo va navhoi navi rastani ba vujud ovarda shavand. Dar jumhurii mo niz dar bobati korhoi seleksioni peshraviho nazarrasand. Masalan, dar natijai duraga kardani gusfandi zoti turkmani bo gusfandi zoti hisori navi navi gusfandi tojikii serpashm, serravgan va sergusht ruyonda shudaast.

Gusfandi zoti tojiki nafaqat gusht va ravgan, balki pashmi khub doshta, onro dar sanoati qolinbofi istifoda mebarand. Olimoni jumhuri hamchunin navhoi navi pakhta, gandum va digar ziroathoro barovardaand, ki ba sharoiti iqlim  muvofiq buda, hosili farovon medihand.

Dar sohai ekologiya niz muvaffaqiyatho kam nestand. Bo tashabbusi olimoni jumhuri va sozmonhoi baynalmilali doir ba muhofizati muhiti zist, muboriza ba muqobili biyobonshavii zaminhoi koram, oqilona istifoda burdani sarvathoi zerizamini niz korhoi ziyode anjom paziruftand.

Bo tashabbusi Prezidenti Jumhurii Tojikiston muhtaram E.SH.Rahmonov va dastgirii Sozmoni Milali Muttahid soli 2003 va solhoi 2005-2015 dar miqyosi jahon «Soli obi toza» va «Ob baroi hayot» elon karda shudaast. Ob manbai hayot meboshad va toza nigoh doshtani on vazifai har yaki most.

Dar natijai omukhtani munosibati bayni namudho usulhoi integratsionii muboriza bo hasharoti zararrasoni kishovarzi kashf shudand. Az mutobiqati mavjudoti zinda ba muhiti beruna chun namuna (model) istifoda karda, bisyor inshootu mekhanizm-hoi suni ofarida shudaand. Boyad guft, ki nadonistan yo inkor kardani qonunhoi biologi metavonad baroi tabiat va inson oqibathoi nokhush ba bor orad. Faromush naboyad kard, ki nigoh doshtani muhiti zist ba raftoru kirdori movu shumo vobasta ast.

Ba nizom darovardani kori muharriki avtomobilho, dar ob napartoftani partovi zahroludi korkhonahoi sanoati, oqilona istifoda burdani sarvathoi tabiat, dar loihai sarbandhoi istgohhoi obii barqi peshbini kardani rohhoi mohiguzar, giriftani peshi buridani darakhtu butta va rastanihoi kuhi imkon medihand, ki muhiti zistro hifz kunem. Tabiat qobiliyati behamtoi barqarorshavi dorad.

Binobar in, dar bazeho tasavvuroti galat paydo shudaast, ki guyo odam ba tabiat tasiri bad rasonda nametavonad. Hayot malum kard, ki chunin nest. Dar bis-yor joyho, binobar faoliyati nodurusti inson, baze namudhoi rastaniyu hayvonot batamom nest shudaand. Binobar in, moro zarur ast, ki faoliyati khojagidorii kheshro az rui qoidai zarar narasonidan ba tabiat ba roh monem.

Ahamiyati amalii biologiya dar oyanda niz ziyodtar khohad shud, zero aholii kurai Zamin afzuda istodaast va bo khuroku ashyoi zindagi tamin kardani on dushvorihoro pesh meorad. YAke az rohhoi afzun gardondani zakhirai khuroki, baland bardoshtani hosili ziroathoi kishovarzi ast. In kor biduni dastovardhoi ilmhoi biologi gayrimumkin meboshad.

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