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Bakteriyahoi kasaliangez

Baze namudhoi bakteriyahoi ba tavri geterotrofi gizogiranda ba organizmhoi zinda dokhil shuda, moddahoi organikii onhoro ba sifati gizo istifoda mebarand (yane paraziti yo tufaylikhuri mekunand) va boisi paydoshavii kasalihoi gunoguni on organizmho megardand. Iiho bakteriyahoi kasaliangez yo paraziti meboshand. Bakteriyahoi kasaliangez ba badani (organizmi) odamon dokhil shuda, az moddahoi organikii hujayrai onho gizo girifta, bosurat afzoish mekunand. Bar zammi in, bakteriyahoi kasaliangez dar natijai faoliyati hayotiashon dar organizmi odam va hayvonot moddahoi zahrnok (mahsuli mubodilai moddaho dar hujayrai bakteriya)-ro khorij karda, onhoro zahrolud mekunand.

bakteriya-3Dar bayni kasalihoi nisbatan malumu pahnshuda, ki tavassuti chakrabukhori obi dahon pahn meshavand, kasalii varami shush (pnev- moniya), sulfai kabudak, guluzindonakro nombar kardan mumkin ast. Hususan, bakteriyai barangezandai kasalii guluzindonak zahri purtasire khorij mekunad, ki bo tezi tamomi organizmro farogirad. Dar natija mushakhoi dil, boftahoi asab va gurdaro az kor mebarorad. Baroi az siroyati in kasali (bakteriya) muhofizat kardani organizm, hamchun chorai peshgirikunanda ba organizm vak- sina meguzaronand. YAne, peshaki odamonro em mekuiand.

Barangezandai yak qator kasalihoi digar — makhmalak (skarlatina), tarbod, guludard (angina) va gayra, hangomi muomilai tarafayn yo dar vaqti istemoli khurok az odami bemor ba solim meguzarad.

Barangezandai kasalii sil ba korkardi usulhoi gunoguni tash- khisi (diagnostiky) va tabobat nigoh nakarda, to ayni zamon sababgori nobudshavii odamon megardad.

Kasalihoi domanai shikam, paratif, isholi khunin ba tufayli istemoli khurok yo obi nochushida, ki bakteriyahoi kasaliangez do- rad. ba odamoni solim meguzarad.

Toun yo reshi vabo yake az bemorihoi dahshatnok ast. Onro bakteriyai chubakshakli toun ba vujud meovarad. Huruju pahnshavii kharobiovari toun dar zamonhoi qadim yake az ofathoi mudhishtarin ba hisob meraft. Masalan, dar asri VI toun az jonibi SHarq ba Evropai Markazi guzasht. Dar in jo in ofat shidsat girifta, dar shahrhoi kalon har ruz hazorho odamonro ba komi marg mekashid. Dar tarikhi jamiyati insoni chunin khurujhoi toun chandin marotiba ruy dodaand.

Dar chorvodori boshad, bakteriyahoi kasaliangez boisi ba vujud omadani kasalihoi oksil, dogi, isqot (brusellyoz) gashtaand. In kasaliho metavonand az hayvoni kasal (dar vaqti mahsuloti onro is- temol kardan) ba odami solim siroyat kunand. Dar nohiyahoe, ki chorvo giriftori kasalii isqot ast, istemol namudani shiri khom (nopukhta) mai ast. SHoyad dar tarkibi shir bakteriyahoi barange- zandai in kasali boshad.

Baze bakteriyakhoe, ki pusish va vayronshavii digar moddahoi organikiro ba vujud meovarand (saprofiti), inchunin baroi hayoti odamon nihoyat khavfnokand. Sporai in bakteriyaho az harorati ba- landi nokifoya nobud nameshavand va dar quttii mahkami konser- vaho va gayraho inkishof yofta, onro zahrolud mekunand. Binobar on, istemoli chunin konservaho va digar mavodi khurokii bo in rohho zahroludshuda ba hayoti odamon khatari kalon dorad.

Bakteriyahoi kasaliangez na tanho ba salomatii odamon va chorvo zarar merasonand. Onho inchunin ba ziroathoi kishovarzi siroyat karda, boisi kasalihoi gunoguni onho meshavand va zarari kaloni iqtisodi ovarda, hosilnokii ziroathoi kishovarziro khele kam mekunand. CHunonchi, az tasiri bakteriyahoi kasaliangezi rastaniho hosili tamoku 40-50 foiz va karam 30-40 foiz kam meshavad.

Ba kasalihoi bakteriyavii rastaniho chunin kasaliho, az kabili tosaki obdor (dar rastanihoi karam, piyoz, bazan dar sabzi va pomidor mushohida karda meshavad), saratoni resha (asosan tok va darakhtoni mevagi zarar mebinand), bakteriozi bodiring, siyohtosaki pomidor, bakteriozi siyohi gandum, khalkatosaki kartoshka, gommozi pakhta va gayraho dokhil meshavand. Az kasalihoi bakteriyavi tamomi uzvhoi rastani zarar mebinad. Dar natijai kasali dar uzvu boftahoi rastani omosi gunogun paydo shuda, bargu poyai on dog mezanad va mepusad yo sukhta khushk meshavad.

Baroi peshgiri kardani kasalihoi siroyatkunanda az tarafi muassisahoi dakhldor chorabinihoi gunogun va makhsus guzaronda meshavad. Hususan, oid ba manbahoi obi nushoki va mahsuloti khurokvori dukhturho nazorati qati mebarand. Dar korgohhoi obtaminkuni (khususan dar shahrho) obi nushokiro saravval dar havzhoi makhsus takshinu sofkori karda, onro khlorolud mekunand, to ki ob az bakteriyahoi kasaliangez poku toza boshad.

Dar on joyhoe, ki bakteriyahoi kasalangezanda vomekhurand yo dar istikomatjoyhoi odamoni ba kasalihoi siroyatkunanda giriftorshuda usuli dezinfeksiyaro istifoda mebarand. YAne, bo moddahoi khimiyavii makhsus, ki kobiliyati nobud kardani bakteriyahoi kasalangezandaro dorand, joyhoi siroyatyoftaro bezarar mekunand. Bazan ba in maqsad dudi moddahoi khimiyaviro (suzondashudaro) niz istifoda mebarand.

SHakhsone, ki ba nigohubini bemoron mashguland, boyad ba qoidahoi gigieniyu sanitari qati rioya kunand. Honai istiqomatiro hamesha toza nigoh doshta, onro bo lattai tar yo bo dastgohhoi changfurubaranda rubuchin kunand. Baroi peshgiri va muhofizat kardani odamon az kasalihoi siroyatkunanda onkhoro peshaki em (chechak) mekunand.

  1. Bakteriyahoi kasaliangez chi tavr ba badani inson dokhil meshavand va boisi chi khel kasaliho meshavand?
  2. Toun yo reshi vabo chi khel kasali ast?
  3. Bakteriyahoi kasaliangez dar chorvodori boisi kadom kasaliho megardand?
  4. Kadom kasalihoi bakteriyavii rastanihoi kishovarziro medoned?
  5. Baroi peshgiri kardani kasalihoi siroyatkunanda chy tadbirho andeshida meshavand?
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