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Adabiyot chist ?

Adabiyot yak navi sanat buda, dar tafovut az memori, naqqoshi, haykaltaroshi, kandakori, gulduzi, rassomi, musiqi, teatr, kino, raqs va surud hayoti voqeiro bo sukhan tasvir mekunad.

Adabiyot kalimai arabi buda, shakli jami «adab» ast va manoi fazilathoi manavi (odob, khulqi nek, khushguf tori, khushnavisi va gayra)-ro dorad. Adabiyot ba manoi vase va mahdud fahmida meshavad. Agar adabiyoti siyosi, ilmi va gayra dar nazar doshta shuda boshad, in fahmishi adabiyot ba manoi vase ast.

Agar adabiyoti badeiro dar nazar doshta boshem, manoi mahdud yo mushakhkhasash on ast, ki majmui asarhoi badeiro dar bar megirad. Adabiyoti badei haqiqati hayotro ba vositai tasviri manzara va naqshhoi badei dar simoi odamon, tabiat, sharoitu muhiti zist inikos menamoyad.

Naqshhoi badei manzarahoi hayoti zohiri va holati botinii insonro faro  megirand.Adabiyoti badei donishhoi moro dar borai tarikhi guzashta, tamaddun va farhangi vataniyu jahoni ziyod mekunad.

Az mutoliai adabiyoti badei mo bo tasvirhoi purrangi badeii ofaridai navisanda vomekhurem, ki onho khulqu raftori namuna dorand va mo az onho ibrat megirem.

Naqshhoi najibu barjastai adabiyoti badei moro dar ruhiyai nakukori, pokizaakhloqi, bainsofi va rahmdili, vafodoriyu sadoqat, mehnatdustiyu ragbat ba ilmu hunar, sharafmandiyu hissi iftikhor, insondustiyu mehanparvari, boirodagiyu muboriza dar rohi rasidan ba maqsad, bohimmatiyu javonmardi, notarsiyu rostqavli, jasuriyu shujoatmandi, khullas, raftori hamidai insoni tarbiya namuda, nihod va tinati moro az tanbali, hirsu hasad, bukhlu kina, badbiniyu beadolati, majmuan az tamomi khislathoi nafratovar toza mekunad.

Hangomi mutoliai adabiyoti badei lafzi ravonu shevoi navisanda, tasviri manzarahoi tabiati dilfireb, vasfi simoyu surati zebo va dilkashi qahramonhoi musbat, lutfu nozukbayoni, istifodai vositahoi tasviri badei va sanathoi lafzi hissi zeboifahmii mo bedor meshavad, zavqi estetiki moro ba sayri bogu bustoni olami zeboi davat menamoyad.

Az in ru, adabiyoti badei ahamiyati barjastai talimi, tarbiyavi va estetiki dorad. Adabiyoti badei az ejodiyoti shifohii khalq-folklor sarchashma megirad. Hanuz dar zamonhoe, ki khat vujud nadosht, odamon surud mekhondand, naqlu rivoyatho hikoya mekardand, afsona meguftand. Matni surudho dar shakli nazm va matni naqlu rivoyatu afsonaho dar shakli nasr mahsuli ejodiyoti shifohii odamoni besavod bud. Binobar in, adabiyot az oni khalq ast va boyad baroi khalq ejod shavad.

Barobari inkishofi hayot jomea, ilm, farhang pesh raft va adabiyot niz sayqal yoft. Tamomi osori badei ba se jinsi adabi judo shud: nazm, nasr, dramaturgiya. Asarhoi manzumro aksar asarhoi liriki meguyand, ki ba onho dubayti, ruboi, qita, gazal, musammat va gayra dokhil meshavand.

Asarhoi nasriro asarhoi epiki (az kalimai epos, yane naqli) menomand, ki janrhoi hikoya, latifa, ocherk, povest, roman va digar asarhoi kalonhajmi naqliro dar bar megirand.

Ba jinsi seyum asarhoe mutaalliqand, ki ba sahna guzoshta shuda, mazmunu mundarijai goyavii onhoro hunarpeshahoi teatr bo harakat va amaliyotu sanati aktyori peshkashi tamoshobin megardonand. In jinsi adabi dramaturgiya nom dorad va janrhoi komediya (mazhaka) va tragediya (fojia)- ro dar bar megirad. Asarhoi mazhakavi az avval to okhiri namoish bo khushholi meguzarand. Asarhoi fojiavi bo hissi gamu anduh namoish doda meshavand, ki oqibati on namoish bo nokomii qahramononi asar anjom meyobad.

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