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ASKARIDOZ

stadii-askaridoza-u-chelovekaASKARIDOZ (Ascaridosis), bemoriest, ki onro lundakirmho – askaridaho ba vujud meorand. Askaridaho kirmhoi kaloni gunogunjins buda, dar rudai boriki odam sukunat dorand. Odam yagona manbai siroyat ast.
Askaridai modina dar yak shaboruz to 250 haz. tukhm meguzorad, ki bo pasafkandi bemor khorij meshavad. Hangomi nabudani hojatkhonahoi obod va vayron kardani qoidahoi behdosht, tukhmhoi askarida ba vositai akhlot dar girdu atrofi khona, havli, polez, bogu darakhton pahn shuda, sabzavotu mevahoro iflos mekunand. Tukhmi askaridaho dar rui zamin va qabathoi boloii khok dar harorati 10 – 360 S va rutubati kofi bad az 2 – 6 hafta bolig meshavad (baroi inkishofi onho 240 S harorati munosib buda, tukhm bad az 14 ruz bolig khohad shud). Tukhmi askarida ba tasiri sharoiti nomatlub nihoyat tobovar ast (dar zeri barf dar sarmoi to 30oS qobiliyati zistan dorad). Dar nohiyahoi iqlimashon mutadil dar chuqurii 20 sm to 5 – 7 sol zinda memonad. Tukhmhoe, ki inkishofashon dar tiramoh ba okhir narasidaast, zimistonro guzaronida, dar fasli bahor bolig meshavand.
Odam az A. dar natijai istemoli sabzavotu mevai noshusta, nushidani obi najushida, az dasti iflos siroyat meyobad. Siroyat mavsimi buda, dar mavzehoi iqlimashon mutadil to 7 moh (az apr. to noyabr) davom mekunad. Mavsimi zimiston siroyat az sabzavoti garmkhona yo tavasuti poyafzol ba khona ovardani tukhmi askarida ruy medihad. Siroyat dar nohiyahoi iqlimashon sard 2 – 3 moh va dar mavzehoi garmser tamomi sol tul mekashad. A. dar joyhoe, ki pasafkandi odamro bezarar nakarda, chun poru dar bogu polezho istifoda mebarand, beshtar pahn shudaast. Tukhmhoi askaridai bolig ba rudai odam vorid shuda, az onho kirminaho ba vujud meoyand. Kirminaho luobpardai rudaro surokh karda, tavassuti jarayoni khuni varid (vena) ba rohhoi nafas meguzarand, bad ba javfi dahon omada, bo obi dahon az nav ba rudai borik dokhil meshavand va dar on jo ba kirmi bolig tabdil meyoband. Tamomi sikli (davri) inkishofi askarida – az vaqti siroyati odam to dar pasafkandi u paydo shudani tukhmi nasli navi on 2,5 – 5 moh tul mekashad.
A. du davra (avval va okhir) dorad. Davrai avvalro davrai kuchi (to ba rudaho takroran aftodani kirminaho) va davrai duyumro davrai rudagi nom mebarand. Dar davrai avvali bemori, odatan, alomati zohiri paydo nameshavad. Bazan bemoron beholi, sulfa va tabu tasf mekunand, ajab nest ba sagles giriftor shavand. Dar marhalai okhirin bemoron az behuzurii dil, beholi, dardi shikam shikoyat mekunand, dar sari dil garoni ehsos shuda, obi dahon meravad, ishtiho mebandad, sar ba dard medaroyad, bemadori, bazan shabharosi (shabtarsi) rukh menamoyad. Bachagon dar khobashon dandon mekhoyand; bemorihoi bronkhit, nafastangi, kamkhuni sar mezanand. A. boisi asaboni va pareshonkhotirii kudakon va kundzehnii maktabbachagon megardad.
Askaridaho ba talkhadon va rohhoi talkha vorid shuda, bemorihoi kholesistiti maddanok, dumbali jigar, peritonit va ufunatro ba vujud meorand. Pas az ba majroi gadudi zeri meda dokhil shudani onho pankreatiti shadid va agar ba rudai kirmshakl dokhil shuda boshand, appenditsit paydo meshavad. Miqdori ziyodi askaridaho boisi rust shudani rudaho megardad. A. jarayoni isholi khunin, tifi shikam, surkhcha, makhmalak va dig. bemorihoi siroyatiro vaznintar menamoyad.
A.-ro muvofiqi tavsiyai dukhtur muolija boyad kard. Agar bemor sarivaqt ba dukhtur murojiat karda, dorui kijjaronro istemol namoyad, tabobat oson meshavad. Vale tul kashidani bemori muolijai duru darozro talab mekunad; dar mavridi ba kholesistiti maddanok, peritonit, insidod (bastashavi)-i rudaho giriftor shudan, jarrohi lozim ast. Istemoli khudsaronai davohoi naboti va doruhoi darunron askaridahoro nest nakarda, baraks sababi orizahoi vaznini bemori megardad.
Muboriza bar ziddi A. az muoinai umumii aholi va ba onho tain namudani muolijai makhsus, obodonii mahallhoi aholinishin, hifzi sanitarii manbai ob, khok, korhoi maorifi sanitari va g. iborat ast. Dar peshgirii A. rioyai qoidahoi behdoshti shakhsi (mas., pesh az istemoli khurok, badi qazoi hojat va pas az kor dar bog, poliz va g. bo sobun shustani daston) va toza nigoh doshtani manbahoi obu hojatkhonai havliho ahamiyati kalon dorad. Akhlotro avval bo usuli kompostkunoni bezarar gardonda, bad chun poru istifoda boyad burd. Dar mavridi bo pasafkandi odam iflos shudani khoki havliho, hayota, bogu polizho najosatro yakjoya bo qabati khok nest mekunand. Dar joi iflosshuda yak qabza koh yo kogazro suzondan yo ba zamin obi jush rekhtan lozim ast. Sabzavotu mevahoro pas az khub shustan va bo obi jush chayqonidan istemol boyad kard. Kudakonro to haddi imkon barvaqttar ba rioyai qoidahoi gigieni (istifodai tubak, bo sobun shustani dast, ba dahon nagiriftani angusht, nakhoidani nokhunho va g.) odat kunondan zarur ast. Nig. niz Gelmintozho.
Ad.: Pokrovskiy V.I., Infeksionnie bolezni i epidemiologiya, M., 2004; Kamardinov H.K., Infeksionnie i parazitarnie bolezni, D., 2009.
SH. Tosheva.

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