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ANTIBIOTIKHO

antibiotikhoANTIBIOTIKHO (Antibiotica; az anti… va yun. bios – hayot), moddahoe, ki mahsuli faoliyati mikroorganizmho, hayvonot va rastani buda, rushd va afzoishi namudhoi gunoguni mikrobhoro bozmedorand.
A-hoi 15 – 16 dar tibbi khalqi hangomi muolijai jarohati maddanok az magori sabz istifoda meburdand. S. 1929 mikrobiologi anglis A. Fleming dar asosi talimot oid ba antibioz (ziddiyati bayni namudhoi alohidai mikroorganizmho), ki dar rivoji on olimon L. Paster va I.I. Mechnikov sahmi kalon guzoshtand, muayyan kard, ki tasiri ziddimikrobii magori sabz ba moddai makhsus – penitsillin (onro khudi magor judo mekunad) vobasta ast. Sonitar penitsillini kholis (benzilpenitsillin)-ro avval tadqiqotchiyoni anglis G. Flori va E. CHeyn (1940), bad olimoni shuravi Z.V. Ermolyeva va T.I. Balezina (1942) hosil namudand. Kashfi penitsillin ba justujui A.-i nav va istehsoli onho ibtido guzosht.
Manbai asosii istehsoli A. namudhoi gunoguni zanburug va baze bakteriyaho (az onho chandin hazor moddahoi doroi antibiotik hosil karda shudaand) meboshand. Vale malum shud, ki bazei in moddaho nafaqat baroi angezandai bemori, balki baroi organizmi odam niz zahrnokand. Binobar in, ba sifati doru faqat hamon A.-e istifoda meshavand, ki faoliyati ziddimikrobiashon baland, dar muhiti biologi ustuvor va darajai zahrnokiashon baroi organizm past boshad. Penitsillin, streptomitsin, tetrasiklin, levomitsetin, oleandomitsin, eritromitsin va g. az jumlai chunin A. buda, farovon istifoda meshavand.
Kashfi A. baroi bomuvaffaqiyat muolija kardani qarib hamai bemorihoi malume, ki angezandaashon mikrobhoand, imkon dod. Vale A. tasiri unversali nadorand va har yake az onho faqat ba mikrobhoi muayyani ba on hassos tasir merasonad. Mas., penitsillin hangomi gazaki shush, ufunat, amrozi rimnoki pust, dardi gulu va dig. bemorihoe, ki mikrobhoi fasodovar meangezand, shifobakhsh buda, ammo ba bakteriyahoi kasalii sil va isholi khunin tasir namekunand; hangomi siroyathoi ruda levomitsetin va tetrasiklin, dar mavridi baze bemorihoi zanburugi boshad, nistatin va levorin tasir merasonand. A. ba bemorihoi virusi (mas., gepatiti virusi) umuman tasir namekunand.
A. doruhoi bosamar boshand ham, ba organizmi bemor metavonand tasiri manfi rasonand. Mas., streptomitsin, kanamitsin va neomitsin shunavoiro past va faoliyati jihozi muvozanatro khalaldor mesozand; levomitsetin ba khun, tetrasiklin boshad ba kori jigar tasiri nokhush merasonad. Dar baze ashkhos istemoli A., khususan penitsillin (hatto miqdori khele kami on), boisi khorishi pust, sagles, obvaram, ekzema va g. meshavad (nig. Allergiya). Andeshidani tadbirhoi favri (agar muolija tahti nazorati dukhtur guzaronda shavad) imkon medhad, ki chunin hodisaho bartaraf karda shavand. Hangomi khudmuolijai benizom va bardavom allergiyai dorui shakli muzminro megirad. Dar baze holatho mumkin ast, ki miqdori nochizi penitsillin yo yagon A.-i digar (khususan hangomi bo yak doru takroran muolija namudan) boisi saktai anafilaksi (nig. Anafilaksiya) gardad. Dar har holati mushakhkhas ravo yo noravo budani in yo on antibiotikro donistan lozim ast. Mas., mavridi homilagi, ekzema, bemorihoi zanburugi va dig. amrozi pust istifodai levomitsetin, hangomi baze bemorihoi gurdayu jigar istifodai monomitsin man ast, chunki onho ravandi bemorihoi mazkurro badtar mekunand. Nodurust va benazorat istifoda burdani A. boisi ruy dodani dig. hodisahoi khatarnok niz megardad. Dar natijai istifodai miqdori nihoyat kami A. yo pesh az muhlat qat kardani korbasti onho, mikrobi bemorizo, ki dar organizmi odam vujud dorad, ba in doru odat karda, ustuvor megardad. Az in sabab bemori ba shakli muzmin guzashta, muolijaash dushvor khohad shud. Durudaroz qabul kardani doru bemorii nav – kandidozro ba vujud meorad. Hangomi on pust, pardahoi luobii dahon, ruda, shush va dig. uzvho illat meyoband. Kandidoz asosan dar odamoni solkhurda va kudakon ba mushohida merasad va muolijaash dushvor ast. Tanho nazorati doimii dukhtur imkon medihad, ki tabobat bo A. bosamar guzaronida khatari inkishofi mikroorganizmhoi ustuvor kam gardad, oqibati nomatlubi tasiri A. bartaraf karda shavad.
Ad.: Lesiovskaya E.E., Farmakoterapiya s osnovami fitoterapii, M., 2003; Mayskiy V.V., Farmakologiya, M., 2004; Harkevich D.A., Farmakologiya, M., 2005.
B.A. Ishonqulova.

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