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AKUSHERI

akusheriAKUSHERI (Obstetricia), momoi, qobilagi, yak sohai tibbi kliniki. Ravandhoi muqarrari va nosomonihoi mukhtalifi organizmi zanro, ki ba obistani, homilagi, zoish va vazi pas az tavallud vobastaand, meomuzad. Daryofti usulhoi kumaki momoi, peshgiri va muolichai avorizi homilagi va zoish, inchunin bemorihoi hamil va navzod vazifahoi A. meboshad. A. yake az sohahoi qadimtarini tibbi amali ba shumor meravad. Malumoti avvalin oid ba baze usulhoi yorii tibbi dar asnoi dushvor budani tavallud hanuz dar papirushoi Ebersi Misri Qadim (hazorahoi 3 – 2 to m.) ovarda shudaand. Dar kitobi muqaddasi hinduho «Ayurveda» (a. 8 to m.) masalahoi dietetikai homila va yak qator usulhoi yori hangomi tavallud zikr yoftaand. Dar inkishofi A. olimoni YUnoni Qadim, Rim, Iskandariya va g. sahmi kalon guzoshtaand. Dar peshrafti amalii on boshad, maqomi olimi namoyoni tochik Abualii Sino (a. 10) bagoyat buzurg ast. Aqidahoi u oid ba A. dar kitobi seyumi «Al-Qonun»-i u bayon gardidaand. Bo in hama A. to a. 16 ilmi tachribavi ba shumor meraft. Ravnaqi A. chun ilm bo komyobihoi buzurgi anatomiya, fiziologiya va tib aloqamand ast. Jarrohi fransavi Ambruaz Pare (1517 – 90) charrohii A.-ro, ki kayho faromush shuda bud, ba amaliyai A. bargardond. A. Levre (s. 1751) va U. Smelli (1754) girahoi A.-ro takmil dodand. Dar a-hoi 17 – 18 dar aksari mamlakathoi Evropa kafedra va klinikahoi A. tasis yoftand, talimi muntazami on chori karda shud. A. dar Tochikiston dar davrai Hokimiyati SHuravi inkishof yoft. Kafedrai akusheri va bemorihoi zanonai fak-ti muolichavii Donishkadai davlatii tibbii Tochikiston (az s. 1941), ki bo tashab- busi V. A. Lositskaya tasis yofta bud, markazi ilmii A. gardid. S. 1959 dar fak-ti pediatriya niz chunin kafedra tasis yoft. Akusheronu ginekologhoi chumhuri dar inkishofi endokrinologiyai A., omuzishi fiziologiyai khuni zani homila, inchunin halli problemahoi kamkhunii onho va bemorihoi genetikii khun khizmathoi shoyon kardand. Soli 1971 dar nazdi kafedrai akusheri va ginekologiyai fakti tabobatii donishkadai mazkur laboratoriyai «Bemorihoi zanon, amrozi modarzod va gayrimodarzodi kudakon» tasis yoft, ki badtar (s.1980) baroi tashkil karda shudani Pajuhishgohi hifzi modaru kudak (hozira Pajuhishgohi akusheri, ginekologiya va neonatologiya) zaminai musoid faroham ovard.
Tadqiqoti olimoni tochik badi s-hoi 80-umi a. 20 asosan ba halli masoili rohhoi kam kardani bemoriho va favti modaru kudak, sinamakoni, hosil shudani shiri sina dar zanhoi homila vobasta ba sharoiti iqlimi subtropikhoi khushki Tochikiston, mubodilai vitaminho dar mavridi homilagii mutadil va orizanok, tasiri omilhoi nomusoidi tabii va sanoat ba qobiliyati naslovarii zanho, kamkhuni va homilagi, tasiri pestisidho va kamgizoi ba sistemai naslovarii bonuvon, orizahoi fasodiyu ufunati dar sohai A., orizahoi peritonit badi choki qaysar va g. ravona shudaand.
YAke az masalahoi muhime, ki olimoni chumhuri sari on kor kardaand, ekologiya va faoliyati nasl ovardani zanho meboshad. Zimni muoinai korgarzanoni sanoati bofandagi malum gasht, ki changi pakhta bo omekhtai duoksidi silitsiy va pestisidho omili asosii bemoriovar mahsub meyoband. Hamchunin muqarrar karda shud, ki sharoiti kori zanhoi pakhtachin ba salomati tasiri nomusoid merasonad, mas., garmii toqatfarso, afkanishoti infrasurkh, gardu changi ziyod va g.
YAk silsila pajuhishhoi olimoni tochik ba tadqiqi khususiyathoi charayoni haml va anchomi on dar korgarzanoni Korkhonai alyuminiyi Tochikiston bakhshida shudaand. Malum gasht, ki korgarzanoni korkhonai mazkur az nigohi akusheri va ginekologi ba guruhi khavfpazir taalluq dorand. Felan bisyor masalahoi A. dar kafedrahoi marbutai DDTT ba nomi Abuali ibni Sino, Donishkadai takmili ikhtisosi kormandoni tibbi Tochikiston va Pajuhishgohi akusheri, ginekologiya va perinatologiya hallu fasl meyoband. Dar rivochu ravnaqi A. olimoni varzidai chumhuri Golubchik S.B., Gurtovoy B.P., Gurtovoy L.E., Hakimova S.H., Trubni- kova L.I., Pulodova M.T., Abdurahmonov M.K., Dodkhoeva M.F., Narzulloeva E.N. va dig. sahmi arzanda guzoshtaand.

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