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TARIHI UMUMI – KITOBI DARSI BAROI SINFI 8

Honandagoni sinfn 8-um dar sinfi 7-um tarikhi navro az okhirhoi asri XV to miyonai asri XIX omukhta, khub fahmidaand, ki dar asrhoi in davra munosibathoi sarmoyadory tashakkul yoftaand va bo khamin asrhoi miyona ba okhir rasida, davrai nav cap meshavad. Neruhoi istehsolkunandai mamlakathoi peshqadami jahon taraqqy karda, ba tagyiryobii sokhta iqtisodiyu siyosi va ijtimoii onho sharoiti musoid faroham ovardand.

Kitobi tarikh sinfi 8Dar in davra siyosati khorijii mamlakathoi ba rohi sarmoyadorirafta komilan tagyir yoft. In davlatho besh az pesh ba zabti mustamlikaho mepardokhtand, to ki manbahoi arzoni ashyoi khomu neruhoi kory va bozorkhoi kulayi molfurushiro ba dast darorand. Hamin tariq, mamlakathoi mutaraqqii sarmoyadory Osiyo, Afrika, Amerikam Lotiny chaziraho va rohhoi muhimtarini bahriro zuran az khud mekunand.

Az nazari peshrafti neruhoi istekhsolkunandayu munosibathoi istekhsoli va siyosati dokhiliyu khorijii davlathoi sarmoyadory tarikhi nav ba du marhala taqsim meshavad. Marhalai avval ogozi sarmoyagundori nomida shuda, on takhminan to miyonakhoi asri XIX davom kardaast. Marhalai duyumi tarikhi nav sarmoyadorii inkhisory (monopolista) nomida shudaast, ki on az miyonai asri XIX ogoz yofta, bo anjomyobii Jangi yakumi jahoni ba okhir rasidaast. Kitobi darsii mazkur khamin marhalai tarikhi navro dar bar giriftaast.

Dar in marhala dar hayoti iqtisodiyu siyosi va ijtimoii mamlakathoi peshqadami jahon navgonihoi ziyode ba amal omadaand. Az on jumla tashkilyobii imperiyahoi mustamlikavy va shirkathoi puriqtidori inkhisory, purzurshavii raqobat dar bayni shirkatkhovu bankho va markazonida shudani onho, raqobati shadidi mamlakathoi imperialisti baroi ba dast darovardani manbakhoi arzoni ashyoi khom va bozorhoi molfurushi, galabai munosibathoi bozorgoni, ba rohi demokrata dokhil shudani yak qatop mamlakathoi sarmoyadory, tashakkuli muassisakhoi demokratii davlathoi mutamaddin, paydo shudani tabaqakhoi navi jamiyati – korgaroni kiroyavu burjuaziya va galabai inqilobhoi burjuaziyu demokrati. Dar barobari in dar imperiyahoi mustamlikavi harakathoi milliyu ozodikhohi vusat yofta, onhoro sol to sol zaiftar megardonidand.

Dar marhalai navi tarikhy davlathoi imperialista dar siyosati khorijiashon yakka-yakka ba maksadkhoi imperii khud noil shuda nametavonistand. Az hamin sabab guruhbandnhoi harbiyu siyosii “Antanta” va “Itifoqi Segona” tashkil meyoband. Maqsadi onho az nav taqsim kardani jahoni allakay taqsim kardashuda bud. Solkoy 1914-1918 jangi bayni in du paymon ba amal omada, talafoti buzurgi to hol didanashudai joniyu moli ba bor ovard.

Dar davrai duyumi tarikhi nav taraqqiyoti mamlakathoi jahon yak khel surat nagirift. Nisbat ba davlathoi digar davlathoi Evropa khele pesh rafta budand. Iyoloti Mutahidai Amerika niz ba onho rasida girifta bud. Lekin davlathoi Osiyo va Afrika hanuz marhalai to sarmoyadoriro az cap meguzaronidand. Mamlakathoi Amerikai Lotiny boshand, aknun ba davrai sarmoyadory vorid meshudand. Tobeiyat ba mamlakathoi abarqudrat imkoniyat namedod, ki mamlakathoi Osiyo, Afrika va Amerikai Lotiny teztar tarakqi karda, ba mamlakathoi peshqadami Evropa va IMA rasida girand.

Imperiyahoi mustamlikavy dar mustamlikahoi khud siyosati goratgaronaro amaly mekardand. Zarurat ba daromad davlathoi mustamlikadorro vodor menamud, qi dar mustamlikahoyashon korkhonahoi sanoatiyu rohhoi okan sokhta, munosibatkhoi puliyu molii onhoro ba nafi khud ba rok monand. Peshrafti sarmoyadory dar mustamlikaho va tarzi idorakunii onho ba ekhtiyochoti sokhiboni mustamlikaho muvofiq kunonida shuda budand.

Dar in kitobi darsy mavzukhoi dar bolo zikryofta va masalahoi digari marbuti tarikhi nimai duyumi asri XIX va avvali asri XX ba tavajjuhi khonandagoni sinfi 8-um peshnihod karda meshavand.

 

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