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MIKROPROTSESSOR

Mikroprotsessor elementi az hama muhimtarin va markazii kompyuter ba shumor meravad. Onro bazan «maynai» kompyuter ham meguyand. Mikroprotsessor skhemai elektronii nachandon kalon (hamagi yak-chand santimetr) buda, ba vositai on hamai qismhoi kompyuter idora, amalhoi arifmetikiyu mantiqi ijro va informatsiya kor karda baromada meshavand. Mikroprotsessor metavonad sadho namud amaliyotro, az qabili jamu tarhkuni, zarbu taqsimkuni, muqoisakuni, dokhilkuni, khorijkuni va gayraho bo surati nihoyat tez dahho va hatto sadho million amal dar yak soniya, ijro namoyad.

mpu_nvidiaKompyuterhoi hozirazamon az kompyuterhoe, ki dar asosi prinsipi fon Neyman kor mekardand, bo on farq mekunand, ki dar onho qismhoi idorakuni va arifmetikimantiqi dar yak jo muttahid karda shuda protsessori markazi nom giriftaast. Digarkheltar karda guem, protsessori markazi yakbora funksiyahoi du qismi mustaqili kompyuterhoi peshinaro ijro menamoyad.

Dar kompyuterhoi IBM PC asosan mikroprotsessorhoi firmai Intel va bazan firmahoi AMD, Cyrix, IBM va gayraho istifoda burda meshavand. Mikroprotsessorhoi Intel-8088, 80286, 80386 SX, 80386 DX, 80486 SX, 80486 SX2, 80486 DX, 80486 DX2, 80486 DX4, Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium 2, Pentium 3 va gayraho modelhoi mashhurtarini

mikroprotsessorhoi Intel ba shumor meravand. Onho dar ruykhat az rui ziyodshavii iqtidori mahsulnoki va narkhashon ovarda shudaand. Farqi mahsulnokii in mikroprotsessorho benihoyat kalon ast. Masalan, iqtidori mahsulnokii mikroprotsessori Intel Pentium Pro az mikroprotsessori Intel 8088 hazorho marotiba ziyodtar ast. Binobar hamin ham, kompyuterhoi dar asosi mikroprotsessorhoi Pentium 3 va Pentium 4 va az in ziyod korkunanda imruz kompyuterhoi puriqtidortarin ba hisob

meravand.

Modelhoi yakkhelai mikroprotsessorho metavonand az hamdigar bo zudii zarbaashon farq kunand:

Zudii zarbai mikroprotsessor gufta, surati az tarafi onho ijrokunii amalhoro meguyand.

Zudii zarba bo megagersho (1Mgs = 106 gers) chen karda meshavad. Har qadare, ki zudii zarbai mikroprotsessor ziyodtar boshad, hamon qadar vay sermahsultar hisob karda meshavad. Masalan, mikroprotsessorhoi modeli Pentium bo zudihoi zarbai az 75 Mgs to 200 Mgs istehsol karda meshudand, ki farqi sermahsulii mikroprotsessori 75 Mgs az 200 Mgs taqriban dunim marotiba kamtar ast. Odatan, dar hujjatho zudii zarbai mikroprotsessorro bevosita pas az nomi onho meorand (masalan, Pentium/200).

Agar modelhoi mikroprotsessorho gunogun, vale zudii zarbaashon yakkhela boshad, on goh on mikroprotsessor puriqtidortar hisob karda meshavad, ki modelash navtar boshad. Modelhoi gunoguni mikroprotsessorho yak namud komandaro (masalan, jamkuni yo taqsimkuni) bo miqdori gunoguni zarbaho ijro menamoyand. Baroi hamin ham, chi qadare modeli mikroprotsessor navtar boshad, baroi ijroi yak namud amal az on hamon qadar miqdori kamtari zarbaho

talab karda meshavad. Masalan, Intel Pentium/133 az Intel 80486/133 va Intel80486/133 az Intel-80386DX/133 taqriban du marotibagi teztar kor mekunand. Modelhoi hozirazamoni mikroprotsessorho, az Intel-80486 DX sar karda, qobiliyati beandoza khubi hisobbarori dorand. Vale modelhoi az Intel-80486 DX poyontar baroi hisobbarorihoi baze sinfi masalahoi matematiki va muhandisi, makhsusan kor bo adadhoi haqiqi, iqtidorashon kami mekunad. Baroi ijroi mahz chunin amaliyot, ba kompyuterho dar qatori mikroprotsessorhoi mavjuda mikroprotsessorhoi makhsus ilova karda meshudand, ki onhoro soprosessorhoi matematiki menomidand. Masalan, mikroprotsessorhoi Intel-8087, 80287, 80387 va 80487SX az qabili chunin soprotsessorho ba shumor meravand.

Savolho:

  1. CHaro mikroprotsessorro «maynai sari» kompyuter menomand?
  2. Kompyuterhoi hozirazamon az kompyuterhoi dar asosi prinsipi fon Neyman korkunanda bo chi farq mekunand?
  3. Dar kompyuterhoi IBM PC mikroprotsessorhoi kadom firmaho istifoda burda meshavand?
  4. Zudii zarbai mikroprotsessor gufta chiro mefahmed?
  5. Soprotsessor chist?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Doir ba mikroprotsessorho dar hajmi duse sahifa fikratonro dar daftar bayon namoed.

 

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