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KATARAKTA

katakrataKATARAKTA (yun. katarrháktes – sharshara, shalola), obi marvorid, tirashavii jalidiyai chashm, ki boisi sust shudani quvvai bosira megardad. Istilohi K. aqidai nodurusti yunoniyoni qadimro, ki sababi K.-ro az paydo shudani moei tira dar bayni inabiya va jalidiyai chashm medonistand, aks menamoyad. Mafhumi durusti K.-ro avvali a. 18 olimi fransavi P. Brisso muayyan kardaast.
K. vobasta ba joygirshavii khud dar jalidiya sitorashakl, doirashakl, qabatnok, kosashakl, khaltagi (dar kapsulae, ki jalidiyaro mepushad), pusti (dar qabathoi periferii jalidiya) va yadrogi (dar qabathoi markazii jalidiya) meshavad.
K.-i modarzodi va gayrimodarzodiro farq mekunand. K.-i modarzodi dar davrai dokhilibatni inkishof yofta, vobasta sinnu sol tagyir nameyobad, quvvai bosira purra sust nameshavad. K.-i gayrimodarzodi, odatan, dar odamoni kuhansol (K.-i piri), bazan dar natijai bemorihoi digari chashm, zahroludii umumi, inchunin zeri tasiri omilhoi mekhaniki, khimiyavi va g. oseb didani jalidiya ba vujud meoyad. Alomathoi asosii K.-i gayrimodarzodi tadrijan tira gashtani jalidiya meboshad. Hangomi K.-i piri jalidiya toraft tira shuda, rangi on safedi khokistarrang va chashm nobino meshavad.
K.-ro bo jarrohi tabobat mekunand.
Dar Tojikiston chunin jarrohiro bori avval prof. L. F. Paradoksov (1940) guzaronidaast.
Ad.: Vovsi B. M., Itogi operasiy ekstraksii starcheskoy katarakti po materialam kliniki glaznikh bolezney. Sbornik rabot kliniki glaznikh bolezney im. A. F. Paradoksova, Stalinabad, 1959; Vovsi B. M., Mamadshoev A. M., Voprosi polostnoy oftalmokhirurgii na Pamire, «Tr. Tadjikskogo gosmedinstituta», t. 128, 1976.

Z. D. Ahrorova.

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