Home / Madaniyat va Sanat / Dostoni «Komde va Madan»-i Bedili Dehlavi

Dostoni «Komde va Madan»-i Bedili Dehlavi

Dostoni «Komde va Madan» avvalin dostoni asrimiyonagist, ki qahramonhoi markazii on – oshiq va mashuqa namoyandai ahli hunar, sanatand. In doston mustaqil yo judogona nabuda, dar dokhili masnavii «Irfon» joy doda shudaast. Az sababi on, ki soli talifi «Irfon» 1712 etirof shudaast, pas sanai ejodi «Komde va Madan» niz boyad hamon sol boshad. Dostoni «Komde va Madan» az 900 bayt iborat buda, 10 bobro faro megirad. Doston dar shakli masnavi buda, dar bahri Hafifi makhbuni aslam (bazan aslami musabbag, makhbuni mahzuf, makhbuni maqsur) talif shudaast.

oshiqAfoili on chunin ast:

yane: foilotun, mafoilun, falun yo failun

Mazmuni dostoni «Komde va Madan» chunin ast: YAke az shohoni nomdori qalamravi Hinduston dar haramsaroi khesh bo nomi Komde raqqosai hunarmandu khubrue doshtaast. Komdei sohibjamol bo hunari voloi khud, ki dar bazmhoi shohona barpo meshud, hamaro maftunu shaydo va sheftavu hayrati menamudaast. CHunonchi:

Bazmi shah be rukhash huzur nadosht,

Bo hoziron charog nur nadosht.

Ovozai jamoli zebo va sanati voloi Komde olamgir meshavad va dar mulki SHimoli Hunduston sanatvari digare – Madan nom zindagiyu faoliyat menamud, ki khunyogari bemonand va saroyandai khushsavte bud. Madan ovozai Komdero shunida bo yak iloje khudro ba qalamravi Komde merasonad. Madan dar yak bazmi shoh ishtirok namuda, hunarnamoi mekunad va ba hozirin nihoyat pisand meaftad va hunarnamoii Madan shohro ba hadde mutaassir mekunad, ki shoh shaddai marvoridi garonarzishero ba Madan hadya mekunad. Sanati Madan Komdero niz taskhir karda bud va Madan shaddai hadyashudaro ba Komde mebakhshad.

Bedil lahzai mazkurro chunin ba rishtai tasvir kashidaast:

K-on chi man doram az sarafrozi,

Beh, ki khalkholi39 poi khud sozi.

Raftori Madan boisi gazab giriftani shoh meshavad. SHoh amr mekunad, ki Madan az shahr badarga karda shavad va agar kase ba u rahmkhoriro ravo binad, ba qatl rasonida meshavad. Komde boshad dar jazoi Madan khudro sababgor medonad va az in ru, mekhohad Madanro bubinad:

Komde har taraf «Madan»-guyon,

Bud chun ashk az qafo puyon.

Kuchaho dod chok bar jigarash,

To rasoni kheshro ba sarash.

Komde ba sifati rishva zaru zevari ziyodero sarf namuda, Madanro ba muhlati yak shab khalos menamoyad va oshiqro ba khonai khud girifta meorad. Onho dar yakjoyagi az gardishi ayyomu az nojurihoi ruzgor shikvaho mekunand. Ruzi digar zolimon onhoro judo namuda, Madanro ba biyobon burda, dar on makon uro tanho meguzorand.

Dar hamon suhbati yakshaba Madan ba Komde gufta bud, ki dar kadom yak gushai mulki SHimol darakhti muqaddasest, ki insonro ba murod merasonad. YAne, agar kase on darakhtro paydo namuda, kame dar soyai on nishinad, ba murod khohad rasid. Ba hamin maqsad, Madan on darakhtro juyon meshavad va az jumla meguyad:

Meravam, to ba on darakht rasam,

SHoyad az soyaash ba bakht rasam.

Lahzai khayrukhush Madan ba Komde gule taqdim namuda, takid mekunad, ki agar gulro khazon bini, bidon ki hayoti man dar khatar ast va umram ba poyon rasidaast. Agar gul pajmurda nashavad, maro chize tahdid namekunad.

Madan on darakhtro paydo karda dar soyai on muddate khob meravad va har zamon az Komde yod mekunad. Az zaboni Madan nomi Komdero hatto parrandagoni biyobon niz hifz karda, onho «Komde»-navo meshavand. CHunonchi:

Vahshu tayri savodo on sahro,

Bast minqoru lab zi savtu navo,

Baski bo sozish oshno gashtand,

YAk qalam «Komde»-navo gashtand.

Bore shohi mulki SHimol hangomi shikor guzorash ba javoni pareshonhole meaftad, ki dar biyobon baso afsurdavu khijil ast. SHoh javonro holpursi mekunad va pas az ogohi yoftan az holi khele pareshoni Madan, ba u khohishi yori rasondan paydo mekunad. Zero Madan sarguzashti purmojaroi khudro ba sami shoh merasonad. SHoh az shunidani in khele mutaassir gardida, mekhohad ba oshiqon yori rasonad. SHohi mulki SHimol ba shohi zolim noma navishta, khohish menamoyad, ki baroi ba maqsad rasidani oshiqon musoidat bikunad. Inchunin, boisror takid ham mekunad, ki agar ba kori oshiqon mone shavad, on goh bo u jang khohad kard. Vale podshohi zolim khohishi shohi odilro rad mekunad. Nihoyat, jang sar mezanad va dar in jang shohi odil piruz meshavad:

Hoki on bevafo ba khun tar shud,

  • Halkhol – halqai tillo yo nuqra, ki zanon baroi zinat ba poy mebandand.

Podshohi Madan muzaffar shud.

Madan az galabai shohi odil shod gardida, nazdik omadani visolro his mekunad. Komde az holati gul qiyos mekunad, ki Madan khushhol boyad boshad. Az holati oshiqon shohi odil niz khursand gardida, mekhohad irodai Madanro bisanjad. U tavassuti sukhanchine ba Komde merasonad, ki Madan dar yake az lahzahoi jang halok shud. Komde barobari shunidani in khabar, az hush meravad va shoh niz az kori khud pushaymon meshavad. Zero hamon shakhs khabari holi Komdero ba shohi odil merasonad. Hangomi ba shoh arz namudani sarguzashti Komde, Madan dar huzuri shoh bud, khabar yofta u niz az hush meravad. SHohi odil az hazli nojo khud pushaymon megardad. SHoh amr mekunad, ki jasadi oshiqonro ba garmoba guzorand. Zer shoh bo tabibon mashvarat namuda bud. Onhoro ba garmoba mebarand va badi bakhudoi, onho hamdigarro dar kanori yakdigar paydo namuda, khursandi mekunand va ba hamin tariq, ba murod merasand.

Doston bo hamin khotima meyobad. Albatta, dar adabiyoti tojik dostonhoi ishqi-liriki khede ziyodand: «Varqa va Gulshoh», «Vis va Romin», «Husrav va SHirin»-ho, «Layli va Majnun»-ho, «Farhod va SHirin» va gayra. Vale dar asari Bedil tozakoriho farovon ast. Muhim on ast, ki optimizmi bisyor qavi dorad. Zero qahramonhoi asosii on ba maqsad merasand.

Az tarafi digar, qahramonhoi markazii doston namoyandagoni ahli hunar meboshand, ki ba juz khunari khesh va khizmat ba mardum, ba siyosat va nizohoi digar saru kor nadorand.

Dar in asari Bedil shohi odil niz raftori digar dorad. U bisyor qati, jiddi va dustdori haqiqatu adolat ast. Agar joe noadolatiero bubinad, onro to ba okhir mesanjad va adolatro barqaroru haqiqatro poydor mesozad.

Bedil isbot mekunad, ki zulm va zolimi bebaqo va sustpoya ast.

Obrazhoi asosii Doston

Dar dostoni «Komde va Madan» obrazhoi asosi va lahzagi, musbat va manfi ishtirok menamoyand. Obrazhoi markazii on: Komde, Madan, shohi kishvari Komde, shohi mamlakati SHimol.

Goya va hadafi ejodii Bedil. Durust ast, ki dostoni «Komde va Madan» dostoni ishqist va bo optimizmi bisyor qavi sarshor ast. Ishqi dar in asar rui tasviromada dar hama jo va dar hama holat sakht himoya karda meshavad. Ishqi du dildoda pok, beoloish, kholi az makru hilla, sidqi, sofdilona va samimi buda, har du dildoda ham muborizand. Onho tarsu haros az shohu amiru kasi digare nadorand. Guzashta az in, Komde va oshiqi u – Madan namoyandai yak tabaqai ijtimoiyand. Onho sohibhunarand va hunarashon onhoro mashhur kardaast. Na Komde va na Madan harisi molu chiz nestand. Onho baroi doroivu molu pul talosh namevarzand. SHoh ba Madan shaddai marvorid inom kard, vale Madan dar huzuri shoh shaddai marvoridro nisori qudumi Komde namud.

Az tarafi digar, bunyodi goyavii asarro adl va adolatkhohivu dodgustari faroham meorad. Albatta, adlu dod dar muqobili zulmu bedodi meistod. SHoir ba in vosita guftanist, ki adlu dod himoya ast. Mutafakkir asosnok menamoyad, ki naboyad fireftai noadolatiho va istedodho shud. Zero zulm va zolimi bebaqo buda, maglubpazirand va adlu dodgustari boshad, shikastnopazir va jovidonaand. Bedil bo nishon dodani du shoh va usuli munosibati onho, haminro takid kardani hast, ki shohoni jonibdori zulm rohi khatoro intikhob kardaand. Onho khatman shikast mekhurand va az arsai tarikh meravand. Onhoro tarikh niz bo nafrat yod mekunad. Vale shohoni odil tarikhsozand va mamlakati onho darozumru mardumonash mehnatqarin meboshand. Tavassuti ejodi bade surat giriftani obrazi shohi odil yake az vazifahoi darajai avvali adiboni asrimiyonagi niz hast. Mahz, ana hamin padidai adabi goyai shohi odilro tavlid kardu adibon ba targibi on kamar bastand.

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