Home / Biologiya / Botanika: Kitobi darsi baroi sinfi 6 -umi maktabi tahsiloti umumi

Botanika: Kitobi darsi baroi sinfi 6 -umi maktabi tahsiloti umumi

SHumo dar sinfhoi 6 az in kitobi darsi talim megired. Tavassuti mundarijai kitob shumo bo nomgui faslu bobhoi alohida shinos gardida, mavzuhoi lozimaro bo osoni daryofta metavoned.

Dar okhiri har yak mavzu bo maqsadi sanjishi darajai fahmishu donishi khonandagon savolhoi ba mavzu dakhldor doda shudaand. Pesh az savolho alomati guzoshta shudaast.

Botanika -6 sinf kitobRaqami rasmho dar matni mavzu va dar zerraqami rasmho bo alomati ishora karda shudaast. Rasmho intikhoban ovarda shudaand va onho baroi osontar az khud kardani mavzuho ba shumo kumak merasonand.

Dar pushti muqovai avval va okhiri kitob chor saltanati olami organiky (zinda), paydoish va inkishofi bakteriyaho, zanburugho, rastaniho gird ovarda shudaast.

Pas az itmomi faslu bobhoi kitob ravishi guzaronidani mashgu- liyathoi laboratori doda shudaast, ki az rui onho muallim bo shu- moyon darshoi laboratori meguzaronad. In mashguliyathoi amali ba shumo imkon medihand, ki ba tavri ayoni ba gunogunkheli va jabhahoi gunoguni faoliyati hayotii rastaniho az nazdik shinos shuda, dar omuzishu hifzi rastaniho malakayu makhorati zaruri hosil namoed.

Az shumoyon bisyor khohish mekunem, ki kitobro toza nigoh dored va bo on ehtiyotkorona munosibat kuned. CHunki dar oyanda az in kitob khoharon va barodaroni khurdsoli shumo metavonand istifoda barand.

Bo hissi minnatdori takid mekunem, ki ba juz adabiyothoi dakhldori dar barnomai talimi nishon dodashuda, inchunin baze rasmho va mavodho az kitobi darsii “Biologiya: rastany, bakteriya, zanburug, gulsang”. M., 1992 (nashrii 23-umi rusi, baroy sinfhoi 6-7), muallifash V.A. Korchagina, kitobi nomburda, tarjuma az nashri 20-umi rusi, Dushanbe, «Maorif», 1992, mutarjim M. Hojimatov va “Biologiya: bakteriya, zanburug, rastani”. M., 1995 (baroi sinfi 6), muallifash V.V. Pasechnik mavridi istifoda qaror doshtand.

MUNDARIJA

MUQADDIML…………………………………………………………………………….. 7

  • 1. Tasavvuroti umumy dar borai tasnifot

(namud, avlod, oila, tartib, sinf, shuba)…………………….. 10

GURUHI RASTANIHO

  • 2. Obsabzhoi sabzi yakhujayra (khlamidomonada

va khlorella)…………………………………………………………………. 13

  • 3. Obsabzhoi sabzi bisyorhujayrai rishtamonand

(ulotriks, spirogira)…………………………………………………… 16

  • 4. Obsabzhoi sabzi tudashakl (koloniyashakl)……………………. 18
  • 5. Obsabzhoi bahri (obsabzhoi bur va surkh)……………………… 20
  • 6. Ahamiyati obsabzho dar tabiat va khochagi.

Muhofizati onho……. ………………………………………………….. 22

  • 7. Ushnai sabz…………………………………………………………………….. 25
  • 8. Ushnai torfi va hosil shudani torf………………………………. 27
  • 9. Sokht, hayot va ahamiyati sarakhsho…………………………………….. 29
  • 10. Sokht va afzoishi chilband…………………………………………….. 31
  • 11. Sarakhsshaklhoi qadima va hosil shudani angishtsang…… 33
  • 12. Gunogunshaklii rastanihoi luchtukhm……………………………. 35
  • 13. Archa…………………………………………………………………………….. 37
  • 14. Afzoishi rastanihoi luchtukhm……………………………………… 40
  • 15. Ahamiyati luchtukhmon dar tabiat va khojagii khalq………….. 42
  • 16. Rastanihoi pushidatukhm (guldor) – hamchun

guruhi olitashkil………………………………………………………… 44

SHUBAI RASTANIHOI PUSHIDATUHM

  • 17. Gunogunii rastanihoi guldor va tasnifoti onho…………. 46

SINFI RASTANIHOI DUPALLA

  • 18. Oilai chinorakho (chakamugiho)…………………………………….. 48
  • 19. Oilai kuknorgulho………………………………………………………. 50
  • 20. Oilai tutho…………………………………………………………………. 53
  • 21. Oilai tugmachagulho……………………………………………………… 55
  • 22. Oilai obnusiho……………………………………………………………. 57
  • 23. Oilai kadugulho…………………………………………………………… 59
  • 24. Oilai chillikgulho………………………………………………………. 63
  • 25. Oilai nastaraniho ……………………………………………………… 67
  • 26. Oilai lubiyoiho……………………………………………………………. 72
  • 27. Oilai angur…………………………………………………………………. 75
  • 28. Oilai chatrgulho…………………………………………………………… 77
  • 29. Oilai labgulho…………………………………………………………….. 80
  • 30. Oilai avranjiho………………………………………………………….. 83
  • 31. Oilai murakkabgulho…………………………………………………… 87

SINFI RASTANIHOI YAKPALLA

  • 32. Oilai piyozgulon………………………………………………………….. 91
  • 33. Oilai zanbaqiho………………………………………………………….. 94
  • 34. Oilai khushadoron…………………………………………………………. 96
  • 35. Mukhofizati rastanihoi guldori nodir va nest- shudaistoda, ki ba “Kitobi Surkhi Tochikiston” dokhil karda shudaand 101

RASTANIHOI KISHOVARZY

  • 36. Paydoishi rastanihoi mazrui…………………………………….. 105
  • 37. Gandum – yake az ziroathoi muhim………………………………… 108
  • 38. Juvorimakka – rastanii khuroki, tekhniki va khuroki chorvo………… 110
  • 39. SHoli – ziroati mazruii qadima………………………………… 112
  • 40. Pakhta – boigarii asosii Tojikiston………………………….. 114
  • 41. Kartoshka – ziroati muhimi khuroki, tekhniki

va khuroki chorvost………………………………………………………. 117

  • 42. Rastanihoi sabzavotii Tojikiston……………………………. 120
  • 43. Ziroathoi polizii Tojikiston………………………………….. 123
  • 44. Rastanihoi mevadihandai Tojikiston……………………….. 125

INKISHOFI OLAMI NABOTOT

  • 45. Gunogunii rastaniho va paydoishi onho…………………….. 129
  • 46. Marhilahoi asosii inkishofi olami iabotot……………. 133
  • 47. Hukmronii pushidatukhmon dar zamoni hozira……………. 136
  • 48. Tasiri faoliyati khojagidorii inson ba olami rastaniho……138

BAKTERIYAHO, ZANBURUGHO, GULSANGHO

  • 49. Sokht va faoliyati hayotii bakteriyaho………………………… 140
  • 50. Pahnshavii bakteriyaho dar havo, ob va khok………………….. 143
  • 51. Akhamiyati bakteriyaho dar tabiat va zindagonii inson…………… 146
  • 52. Bakteriyahoi………………………………………………… kasaliangez… 148
  • 53. Tavsifi umumii zanburugho. Zanburughoi telpakchador………….151
  • 54. Zanburughoi pupanak…………………………………………………. 157
  • 55. Zanburugi khamirturush. Sokht va ahamiyati on

dar khojagii khalk………………………………………………………… 159

  • 56. Zanburughoi parazit…………………………………………………. : 161
  • 57. Gulsangho. SHaklhoi hayotii onho……………………………… 164
  • 58. Sokhti anatomii gulsangho. Simbioz. Roli gulsangho dar tabiat va khojagi….. 166

RASTANY VA MUHITI ATROF

  • 59. Jamoai nabotot va gunogunshaklii onho……………………… 169
  • 60. Sokhti jamoai rastaniho……………………………. ’…………….. 177
  • 61. Ivazshavii jamoai nabotot…………………………………………. 179
  • 62. Flora va pushishi nabotot………………………………………….. 181
  • 63. Tasiri omilhoi tabiat ba jamoai nabotot……………….. 183
  • 64. Tasiri jamoai nabotot ba mukhiti atrof…………………… 188

TACHRIBAHOI LABORATORI……………………………………………….. 191

MUQADDIMA

CHi tavre ki malum ast, Olami nabotot khele boy, rangin va favqulodda gunogunkhel ast. CHunin gunogunnamudi, gunogunshakli va tagyirpazirii rastanikho tasodufi nabuda, vay ba tagyiryobi va digargunshavii sharoithoi muhiti zisti rastaniho zich aloqamand meboshad.

Az rui sokht va shaklhoi hayotiashon rastanihoi darajai past sokhti nihoyat sodda dorand va jismi (tanai) onho ba uzvhoi makhsus- tashakkulyoftai rushdu numui judo nameshavand. Masalan, bakte- riyaho faqat sokhti hujayragi doshta, plastid va yadro nadorand. Zanburugho boshand, agarchi baze alomathoi ba hujayrahoi hay- vonot va rastaniho monand doshta boshand ham, inchunin boz alomathoi makhsuse dorand, ki tanho ba khudy onkho khos ast. Gulsangho – organizmhoi zindai simbiotikie meboshand, ki tanai onho az hujayrahoi (gifhoi) zanburugi va obsabzi tashakkul yoftaast. SHumo dar mavzuhoi darshoi oyanda ba sokhtu faoliyati hayotii onho mufassal shinos khohed shud.

Dar rastanihoi darajai oli tanai (jism yo poyai) onho ba uzvhoi alohidai nagzinkishofyofta – resha, poya, barg va digar uzvho judo shudaand, ki har kadomi onho dar rastanii tom vazifai muayyane- ro ijro mekunand.

Dar rui Zamin taqriban 250 hazor namudi rastanihoi guldor yo pushidatukhm mavjud asg. Dar onho gul va meva bo tukhmash hosil me- shavad. In uzvho baroi davom dodani nasli rastani khizmat karda, tavassuti in uzvkho afzoish va pahnshavii onho amali megardad.

CHi tavre ki hangomi omuzishi fanni botanika dar sinfi 5-um medoned, yake az khususiyathoi muhimu asosi va farqkunandai rasta- nihoi guldor dar onho mavjud budani gul meboshad. Hususiyati digar – pushidatukhmii onhost. Zero, dar onho tukhmmugja hatman dar dokhili guraki mevadon hosil meshavad va bo guzashti muayyani vaqt gurak ba meva, tukhmmugja boshad, ba tukhm tabdil me- yobad. Hamin tavr, tukhm hamesha dar dokhili meva pinhon ast. Bi- nobar on rastanikhoi guldorro bo iborai digar rastanihoi pushi- datukhm niz menomand.

SHaklhoi hayotii rastanihoi guldor gunogun meboshad. Onho dar shakli darakht, butta, nimbutta va alaf vomekhurand. Hamai rasta- nihoi darakhti va buttagi bisyorsolaand. Rastanikhoi alafi yakso- la, dusola va bisyorsola meshavand.

Boyad qayd kard, ki ba sershumori va bisyornamudii rastanikhoi guldor nigokh nakarda, dar tuli tarikhi tulonii sohai kishovarzi mikdori kame az onho dar haysi (shakli) rastanihoi mazrui mav- ridi istifoda karor dorand.

Azbaski nabototi khudruy va mazrui dar sharoithoi gunogun nashunamo mekunand, onho az yakdigar bo bisyor sifatu khususiyathoi khosaashon farq mekunand. Mevai rastanihoi mazrui (ki bo dakho- lati bevositai inson ba vujud ovarda shudaand), odatan, khele kalonandoza, bomazza, khushhazmshavanda va serhosil meboshad. Dar navbati khud rastanihoi khudruy az rui khususiyatkhoi peshpazaki (zud- pazaki), darozumri va ba sharoithoi nomusoidi muhiti zist to- bovar budanashon az rastanihoi mazrui farq mekunand.

Az rui qonunu qoidahoi tasnifoti (sistematiki) shubai ras- tanikhoi guldorro ba sinfi rastanihoi dupallatukhm va yakpalla- tukhm judo mekunand. CHunin rastaniho, az qabili pakhta, lubiyo, nakhud, kadu, bodiring, tarbuz, lablabu, seb, gelos, zardolu va gay- raho ba rastanihoi dupallatukhm taalluq dorand. Ba rastanihoi yakpallatukhm gandum, jav, arzan, juvorimakka, piyoz, lola, savsan va gayraho dokhil meshavand. Umuman, rastanihoi dupallatukhm nis-’ bat ba rastanihoi yakpallatukhm taqriban chor marotiba ziyodta- rand.

Bamavrid ast qayd kupem, ki dar omuzishu tadqiqot va tasnifo- ti nabototi Tojikiston sahmi olimon va tahqiqotchiyoni Insti- tuti botanikai Akademiyai ilmhoi Jumhurii Tojikiston, ki soli 1941 tasis doda shudaast, khele kalon va nazarras ast. Bo rohba- rii bevositai nabototshinosi maruf P.N. Ovchinnikov tahiya va nashri asari bisyorjildai «Florai Tojikiston» dar soli 1937 ogoz gardid. Dar solkhoi minbada in asari purarzish dar hajmi 10 jild az chop baromad va dastrasi ahli ilm gardid. Dar navishtu tayyor kardani asari bisyorjildai garonbakho, ki dar on oid ba 4513 namudi rastanihoi sporaovar, tukhmdor va guldori vatanamon ma- lumothoi daqiqi botanikiyu tasnifoti gird ovarda shudaast, sahm va khizmathoi shoyoni olimoni voloikhtisos – M.R. Rasulo- va, S.YU. YUnusov, A.P. CHukavina, G.F. Kochkareva, G.K. Kinzi- kaeva, L.N. Abdusalomova, B.A. SHaripova va digaron bagoyat kalon va shoistai tahsin ast. In tadqiqothoi purarzish imkon dodand, ki 170 namudi navi rastaniho kashf shuda, ziyoda az 200 namudi rastaniho, ki ba onho khavfi nobudshavi takhdid mekunad, ba «Kitobi Surkhi Tojikiston» dokhil karda shavand.

Florai rastanihoi sporadori Tojikiston niz khele boyu joli- bi diqqat meboshad. Tahqiqu tahlilhoi bomaromi ilmi imkon dodand, ki dar hududi Tojikiston taqriban 2200 namudi obsabzkho, 2000 namudi zanburugho, ziyoda az 300 namudi gulsangho va 400 namudi ushnaho ba kayd girifta shuda, az jikhati botaniki purra tasnif karda shavand. Dar in jabha mesazad sahmu khidmatkhoi purarzishi olimoni varzida U.K. Mamatqulov, G.A. SHmelev, I. Qudratov va digaronro makhsus qayd kunem.

Dar okhir meboyad qayd’ kard, ki dar peshburd, omuzish va tadqi- qoti bisyor jabhahoi mukhtalifi tahqiqoti botaniki va korkardi rohhoi oqilona istifoda burdani nabototi kishvaramon sahmu khidmathoi shoyoni chunin olimoni maruf, az qabili O. Fedchenko, V.L. Komarov, N.F. Goncharov, K.V. Stanyukovich, YU.S. Grigorev, Ikonnikov S-S., V.I. Zapryagaeva, R.V. Kamelin, B.M. Komarov, O.SH. SHukurov, M.I. Ismoilov, M. Hojimatov va digaron khele kalon va nazarras ast.

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