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Bemorihoi uzvhoi nafaskashi va peshgirii on

Siroyat ba vositai havo. Mikroorganizmho va gardu chang dar pardai luobii rohhoi boloii nafas joy girifta, az on jo yakjoya bo luobho berun mebaroyad. Dar chunin holat aksariyati mikroorganizmho bezarar meshavand. Qismi mikroorganizmhoe, ki ba uzvhoi nafaskashi dokhil meshavand, metavonand har guna bemorihoro ba vujud orand. Gripp, sil, dardi gulu, khunoq va baze bemorihoi digar az hamin qabiland.

Gripp. Grippro virusho ba vujud meorand. Onho zarrachahoi maydatarini mikroskopi buda, hatto sokhti hujayravi nadorand. Virushoi gripp dar luobi binii bemoron, inchunin dar balgam va obi dahoni onho vujud dorand. Hangomi atsa va sulfai odamoni bemor millionho zarrachahoi ba chashm noayoni virusdor ba havo pahn meshavand. Agar in qatraho ba uzvhoi nafasi odami solim dokhil shavand, u az gripp siroyat yofta metavonad.

grip

Hamin tariq gripp az zumrai bemorihoi siroyatii dar havo hosilshuda meboshad. Gripp khele zud pahn meshavad, binobar in bemoroni grippro ba koru tahsil dar korkhonaho, muassisaho va donishkadaho roh dodan mumkin nest. Grippro chun notobii seruza pindoshtan nodurust ast. Bodi on khatarnok meboshad. Bemoroni gripp hangomi munosibat bo odamon boyad dahonu biniashonro bo bandinai chorqabatai dokagi bandand. Bandina havoro guzaronida, vale qatrahoi angezandai bemoriro nigoh medorad.

Dar vaqti atsa va sulfa bemoron boyad dahonu biniashonro bo dastruymol pushonand va chunin raftor atrofiyonro az siroyat emin medorand.  Bemorii sil. Aksar vaqt angezandai bemorii sil qalamchamikrobi sil buda, ba shush zarar merasonad. Vay dar havoi nafasgiri, qatrahoi balgam, zarfho, libos, sachoq, va chizhoi digare, ki bemor istifoda kardaast, mavjud ast.

Angezandai bemorii sil na tanho bo zarrahoi obi dahonu bini, balki bo gardu chang ham pahn meshavad. Dar joi rutubatnoki beoftob angezandahoi sil muddati daroz qobiliyati zindagiashro nigoh doshta metavonad. Onho dar joyhoi khushku khele ravshan zud nobud meshavand.

Sharoiti ziddisanitari va nimgurusnagii doimi sababhoi asosii dar davrahoi guzashta ba tavri ommavi pahn shudani bemorii sil budaand. Holo boshad ba tufayli behtar shudani sharoiti zindagii aholi bemorii sil khele kam shudaast.

Tib dar bobati peshgiri va tabobati bemorii sil ba muvaffaqiyathoi buzurg noil shudaast. Kudakonu kalonsolon muntazam muoina karda meshavand. Dar darmongohu shifokhonahoi bemorii sil bemoronro muolija mekunand.

Baroi peshgiri kardani bemoriho khonahoi istiqomati, kuchahoi shahr va binohoi jamiyatiro toza nigoh doshtan zarur ast. Toza kardani havoi shahrho, dehot, mahallahoi korkhonahoi sanoati, havlihoi khonahoi istiqomati ba kabudizor kardani onho vobasta ast.

Tasiri tamokukashi ba uzvhoi nafas. Dudi tamoku, gayr az nikotin boz qarib 200 modda – az jumla gazi gubori angisht, kislotai khlorid, benzopiren, duda va gayra dorad, ki baroi organizm nihoyat zararnokand. Hangomi tamokukashi in moddaho ba kovokii dahon va rohhoi nafas bolo daromada, ba pardahoi luobi va lifofai hubobchahoi shush mechaspand va ba vositai obi dahon ba meda dokhil meshavand.

Nikotin na tanho baroi tamokukashon zararnok ast, inchunin qismi ziyodi on ba havo baromada, odamoni girdu atrofro zahrolud mekunad. Dudi tamoku pardahoi luobii kovokii dahonu bini, raghoi nafas va chashmro ozurda mesozad. Qarib hamai tamokukashon giriftori gazaki rohi nafasand, ki sulfai jongudozi onho ba hamin vobasta ast. Gazaki doimi qobiliyati muhofizatii pardahoi luobiro past mekunad, zero fagositho shushro az mikrobhoi bemoriovar va moddahoi zararnoke, ki bo dudi tamoku meoyad, toza karda nametavonand. Binobar in tamokukashho, aksaran ba bemorihoi iltihobi va siroyatkunanda giriftor meshavand.

Zarrachahoi dud va qatron ba devorhoi noyi nafas va hubobchahoi shush menishinand. Khususiyathoi muhofizatii pardahoe, ki hubobchahoi shushro pushonidaand, past meshavand. Shushi odami tamokukash chandiriashro gum karda, nagz vase nameshavad va in boisi kam shudani gunjoishi zaruri va havogirii on megardad.

Dar natijai in organizm az oksigen ba tavri kofi tamin nameshavad va odam qobiliyati koriashro gum karda, khudro bad his mekunad (rasmi 64).  Malum ast, ki odamoni tamokukash nisbatan ba digaron 6-10 marotiba ziyodtar ba bemorii saratoni shush duchor meshavand.

Muayyan shudaast, ki baze moddahoi tarkibi dudi tamoku (benzopiren, qatron va gayra) boisi bemorii saraton megardand. Tamokukashi har sol dar tamomi mamlakathoi dunyo hazorho odamonro ba halokat merasonad. Muboriza ba on mushkiloti jiddii ijtimoi gardid. Tabibon, arboboni jamiyatii bisyor mamlakatho dar muborizai ziddi tamokukashi yakjoya amal mekunand.

Ba on Tashkiloti umumijahonii nigohdorii tandurustii nazdi Sozmoni Milali Muttahid dokhil shudaast. Dar yak qator mamlakatho tamokukashi khususan dar bayni javonon kam shudaast. Mo bovar dorem, ki aqli solim bolo girifta, aksar odamon az in odati bad qatiyan dast mekashand.

Savolho:

  1. Kadom bemoriho metavonand ba vositai havo siroyat kunand?
  2. Gripp az chi paydo meshavad?
  3. In bemori az bemoron ba odamoni solim chi tavr meguzarad, vay chi khavf dorad?
  4. Dar mamlakati mo baroi peshgiri kardani bemorii sil chi tadbirho meandeshand?
  5. Ba uzvhoi nafasgiri tamokukashi chi tasiri zararnok merasonad?
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