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Badakhshon va Hisor dar asri XVII – nimai avvali asri XVIII

Hududi ziyodi davlati zamoni Temuriyonro sulolai nav Ashtarkhoniyon darbar namudand. Poytakhti onho shahri Bukhoro bud. Dar shimoli Afgoniston, sohili chapi daryoi Amu — Qunduz, Fayzobod, Balkh, SHibirgon va Badakhshon, dar sokhili rosti in daryo — Tirmiz, Kulobu Qubodiyon tobei sulolai mazkur bud.

Dar zamonn hukmronii Subhonqulikhon mavqe va etibori baze az saroni qabilaho baland gardid. YAke az onho Mahmudbii atolik bud. Hon uro hokimi Balkh va Badakhshon tain namud. On solho Badakhshon amalan muzki mustaqil bud. Dar on jo asosguzori sulolai amironi badakhshoni YOribek hukmroni mekard. Dar nimai duvvumi asri XVII munosibati bayni Badakhshon va Bukhoro bad shudan girift. Tokhtutozi lashkari Bukhoro ba Badakhshon vusat girift. Badakhshoniho bo sardorii miri khud YOribek ba istilogaron muqovimati sakht nishon medodand. Onho bukhoriyonro ba koni lali khud roh namedodand. Bo maqsadi ba dast ovardani lal Mahmudbii atolik ba Badakhshon lashkar kashid. Vale muvaffaqiyat ba dast darovarda natavonist. Oqibat majbur shud, ki bo YOribek muohida basta aqib nishinad. YOribek meboist mahsuli dusolai koni lali Badakhshonro ba khon suporida, tobei Bukhoro gardad. Lekin dar amal u hokimi mutlaqi on jo bud va tamoman mustaqilona kor meburd.

Dar asri XVI Balkh, Tirmiz, Qunduz, Qubodiyon, Hakzonu Badakhshon tobei beki Hisor budand. Darsolhoi hukmronii sulolai Ashtarkhoni in mulkho, hatto Hisor tobei Balkh gasht. CHunki dar Balkh valiahdi khoni Bukhoro hukm merond va uro niz “khon“ menomidand.

Dar zamoni hukmronii Imomqulikhon dar Hisori SHodmon Davlatbii kenagas hukm merond. U bayni hokimoni viloyathoi digari Bukhoro maqomi khosro sohib buda, siyosati nimmustaqilro pesh meburd.

Hukmronin Davlatbiy to soli 1642 davom kard. Badi ba sari hokimiyati Bukhoro omadani Nodirmuhammadkhon dar viloyatho pisaroni u hukmron shudand. Hisor ba Qilichmuhammad nom pisari u rasid. Mulki dar asri XVI yagonai Hisor, dar zamoni hukmronii sulolai Ashgarkhoni ba qismho taksim shuda, ba itoati Bukhoro guzasht. Vale muboriza baroi hokimi Hisor shudan bayni pisaroni Nodirmuhammadkhon davom mekard. Pisari savvumi u Bahrom Sulton oqibat hokimi in mulk gasht.

Bad az ba sari hokimiyati Bukhoro omadani Abdulazizkhon (1645-1680) bayni khonhoi Bukhoro va Balkh baroi sohib shudan ba Hisor muboriza cap zad. Az in muboriza istifoda namuda yak muddati kutoh hokimi Samarqand Hisorro tobsi khud gardonid.

Itoati mulki Hisor ba Balkh, Samarqand va Bukhoro doimi nabud. Dar okhiri asri XVII az besarusomoni va beadolatii khoni Bukhoro istifoda namuda Hisori SHodmon mustaqilii khudro barqaror namud.

Hisor yake az viloyathoi sarkash bud. Soli 1703 lashkari Bukhoro bo sardorii Muhammadrahimbi bo maqsadi zabti in mulk voridi viloyat gasht. Raftori gustokhonai lashkari u boisi khashmu gazabi mardumi Hisor gardid. SHurishi umum ogoz yoft. Isyongaron qarorgohi lashkari Bukhororo torumor kardand.

Habari nokomii lashkari Bukhoro dar Hisor ba hokiii Balkh Muqimkhon rasid. Bo farmoni u lashkari Balkh bo sardorii Mahmudbii atoliq, mohi fevrali soli 1704 ba sui Hisor harakat kard. Vale to omadani onho hokimi Hisor Ugkan dodkhoh lashkari gurezai Bukhororo taqib namuda, lavozimoti ziyodi harbi, chodaru khayma va asponro ganimat girift.

SHikastkhuri dar Hisor khoni Bukhoro Ubaydullokhonro (1702 – 1711) ruhan azob medod. U az noittifoqii baynikhudii qabilai suistifoda namuda, ba sui Hisor lashkar ravon kard.

In navbat ham Balkh bo maqsadn ba itoati khud darovardani mulki Hisor lashkari sershumorro zeri farmoni Mahmudbii ravon kard. Ba u muyassar gardid, ki lashkari Bukhororo maglub namuda Darvesh kushbegi, pisari Fozilbiyro hokimi Hisor tain namoyad.

Bad az ronda shudani lashkari Bukhoro beshtar az 50 sol Hisor hamchun mulki mustaqil arzi vujud namud. Dar in muddat bekhoi Hisor hamdigarro ivaz mekardand. Ba bazei onho muyassar meshud, ki ba sarzamini hamsoyagoni khud lashkar kashand.

Az tarafi digar, khonhoi Bukhoro mekushidand, ki Hisorro mutei khud gardonand. Dar lahzahoi dushvori tahdidi dushman Hisor ittifoqchii khudro paydo kard. YAke az itgifokchii in mulk hokimu mardumi Uroteppa budand. CHunki ham dar Hisoru ham dar Uroteppa sulolai khonadoni yuzho hukm merondand. Ittifoqi mustahkami onhoro voqeai soli 1754 ravshan ayon kard.

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