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MUBODILAI MODDAHO VA NERU

metabolizmMUBODILAI MODDAHO VA NERU, metabolizm, majmui jarayoni tagyiroti khimiyavii moddahoyu neru (energiya) dar organizmhoi zinda va mubodilai moddahoyu neru bayni organizmu muhit. M. asosi faoliyati hayoti, nishonai khosi materiyai zinda buda, zindaro az gayrizinda farq mekunad. Har navi hayvonot mubodilai khosae dorad, ki on ba khususiyathoi irsi, jins, sinnu sol, sharoiti zindagi va g. vobasta ast.
Majmui tabadduloti khimiyavii moddahoi gunogun az lahzai ba khun vorid shudani onho to hosil gashtani mahsuli nihoii tajziya mubodilai mobaynii moddaho va neru yo metabolizmi mobayni nom dorad. Mubodilai mobayni asosan dar dokhili hujayra surat megirad, az in ru istilohi mubodilai «mobayni» yo «dokhili hujayravi» hammanost. Ravandhoi fermentii ba ham muqobil, vale ba hamdigar sakht marbut asosi M.-i mobayniro tashkil medihand. In hodisaho assimilyatsiya (anabolizm) va dissimilyatsiya (katabolizm) nom dorand. Assimilyatsiya az payvasthoi soddatarine, ki hangomi guvorish (hazmi khurok) hosil meshavand, hosil gashtani moddahoi kalonmolekulai hujayravi ast (kislotahoi nukleat, safedaho, charbu va moddahoi jarbmonand). Dissimilyatsiya tajziyai fermentii molekulahoi kalon buda (dar organizmhoi oli, odatan, bo rohi oksidshavi meguzarad), bo ikhroji energiyai payvasthoi khimiyavii moddahoi organiki surat megirad. Energiyai ozodshuda baroi kashish yoftani mushakho, intiqoli impulshoi asab, nigahdorii harorati badan, ravandhoi gunoguni hosilshavi, jabbish va tarashshuh, mahfuz doshtani konsentratsiyai ionhoi organiki va gayriorganiki dar dokhilu khoriji hujayra istifoda megardad. Ba tufayli M. dar organizmi zinda moddahoi gizoi ba payvasthoi makhsus tabdil yofta, chun masolehi bunyodi yo nerubakhsh istifda meshavand. M. ba muntazam nav shudani uzvu boftaho (biduni tagyiri tarkibi khimiyavii onho) musoidat mekunad. Safedaho, charbu, karbogidratho va g. dar jarayoni mubodila mavqei gunogun dorand.
Organizm safedahoro asosan ba sifati masolehi bunyodi (plastiki), karbogidratho va charburo baroi jubroni sarfi energiya istifoda mebarad. Karbogidratho manbai asosii nerui organizm meboshand, zero hangomi tagyiroti onho taqriban nisfi nerui baroi organizm zarur hosil meshavad.
M.-ro shartan ba chunin zinaho judo mekunand: 1) Guvorish – az tasiri fermenthoi hozima (pepsin, tripsin, khimotripsin va g.) dar medayu ruda to payvasthoi khurdmolekula tajziya shudani qismhoi murakkabi tarkibi khurok, ki baroi mubodilai moddahoi gunogun umumi ast va organizm metavonad onhoro hazm kunad; payvasthoi khurdmolekula chun chorroha samthoi gunoguni metabolizmro bo ham mepayvandand; 2) Mahsuli hozimaro jabbidani ruda va badi ba khun guzashtan, ba uzvu boftaho rasondani on; 3) Az moddahoi dar jarayoni guvorish paydoshuda hosil gashtani payvasthoi baroi hamin organizm khos. 4) Tajziyai in payvastho yakjoya bo hosil shudani mahsuli mobayni va intihoii mubodila; 5) Ikhroji mahsuli intihoii mubodila az organizm.
Dar hujayraho jarayoni biosintez va tajziya hamzamon ba amal meoyad. Rohi asosii istifodai neruii dar jarayoni M. ozodshuda in dar moddahoi makhsus (ba nom payvasthoi makroergi), mas., adenozintrifosfat (ATF) gird omadani on ast. Dar bayni payvasthoi makroergi ATF universali meboshad. ATF bo rohhoi gunogun az kislotai adenozindifosfat (ADF) va fosfati gayriorganiki hosil meshavad, ammo qimati neruii tariqi hosil gashtani on nobarobar ast. Dar surati tajziyai ATF ba ADF va fosfati gayriorganiki 8 – 10 kkal energiya khorij meshavad. Energiyai ATF ba energiyai mekhaniki, khimiyavi va garmi tabdil yofta, ba dig. payvastho meguzarad, hamchunin baroi ehtiyoji biosintez sarf meshavad.
Mavqei vitaminho, ob va moddahoi gunoguni minerali dar jarayoni M. khele kalon ast. Natriy, kaliy, kalsiy, fosfor, inchunin baze mikroelementho – magniy, mangan, ruh, molibden, ftor, kobalt va g. baroi M. nihoyat muhim meboshand. Onho dar ravandhoi bioelektri (chun noqili impulsi asab) va osmosii hujayraho shirkat varzida, ba tarkibi dandon, ustukhonho dokhil meshavand, baroi faoliyati bisyor fermentho va pigmenthoi nafaskashi (mas., gemoglobin) ahamiyati kalon dorand.
Darajai M. dar jarayoni hayot doimi nest. Ba tufayli M. organizm ba sharoiti tagyiryobandai zindagi mutobiq megardad. In hama dar natijai muvofiqat va durustii jarayoni M. ba dast ovarda meshavad. Hamin tavr, darajai ba organizm khosi M. muayyan megardad, ki on dar rafti inkishofi tarikhi (filogenez) tashakkul yofta, bo mekhanizmhoi irsiyat (hangomi tasiri mutaqobilai organizmu muhiti zist) tanzim meshavad. Dar asnoi tagyiri sharoit mekhanizmhoi tanzimgar ba kor daromada, jarayoni M.-ro ba samti zaruri megardonand. Mas., dar sharoiti anaerobi (nabudani oksigen) jarayoni fosforonii oksidi bo glikoliz ivaz meshavad. Baraks, dar asnoi ziyod shudani miqdori oksigen dar boftaho glikoliz qat gashta, jarayoni fosforonii oksidi meafzoyad. M. dar hujayrayu boftaho dar natijai ba taassuri fermenti, tanzimi hosilshavi va faoliyati fermentho tasiri muayyan rasondan tanzim meyobad. Jarayoni M. dar hujayra tavassuti aloqai baraks khud ba khud ba nizom medaroyad. Mas., miqdori ATF-e, ki dar hujayra hangomi fosforonii oksidi hosil shudaast, shiddati in jarayonro muayyan mesozad. Agar darajai hosil gashtani ATF az istemoli on ziyod boshad, on goh jarayoni fosforonii oksidi qat megardad va baraks. Bahri tanzimi M. dar hujayrayu boftaho membranahoi biologi ahamiyati kalon dorand. Onho surati ba hujayra dokhil va khorij shudani payvasthoi gunogunro nazorat mekunand.
Tanzimi asabiyu gormonii reaksiyahoi fermenti, ki asosi metabolizm meboshad, shakli asosii tanzimi ba ham mutobiqi mubodila dar odamu hayvonot ba shumor meravad. Mas., dar surati kostani miqdori qandi khun ikhroji adrenalin (ba mekhanizmi fermentie, ki tajziyai glikogen va hosilshavii glyukozaro metezonad tasir merasonad) meafzoyad. Dar asnoi ziyod shudani qandi khun, tarashshuhi insulin afzuda, on tajziyai glikogenro dar jigar qat mekunad. Insulin ehtiyoji boftahoi kanori (mushakho, asabiyai markazi va g.)-ro ba glyukoza ziyod karda, dar natija on ba khun kam vorid meshavad. Silsilai asabhoi markazi va vegetativi tanzimi jarayoni M.-ro tamin menamoyand. CHunin tanzim bevosita yo tavassuti gormonhoe, ki gadudhoi usorai dokhili judo mekunand, amali megardad. Har yak bemorii odam payvasta bo ikhtiloli M. sodir meshavad. In makhsusan zimni ikhtiloli kori asabiya va gadudhoi usorai dokhili zohir megardad. M. dar mavridi tagziyai nomurattab khalal meyobad.
Digarguni dar mubodilai asosi binobar tagyiri surati jarayoni oksidshavi, zuhuroti ikhtiloli umumii M. ast. Mubodilai asosi (mubodilai moddaho hangomi farogat) in hamon miqdor garmiest, ki dar mavridi sust budani surati jarayoni mubodilai moddaho (dar odam) dar sharoiti oromii purra hosil meshavad. Hangomi muoina dar klinika aksaran bo yorii asbobi makhsus surati mubodilai asosi (dar holati oromii jismoni va ruhi, pagohi, ba dili nahor)-ro muayyan mekunand. Meyori mubodilai asosii javonon dar yak shaboruz 1300 – 1600 kkal ast; buzurgi mubodilai asosii zanon nisbat ba mardon 10 – 15% kam meboshad. Bo rafti sinnu sol mubodilai asosi kam meshavad, dar odamone, ki bo mehnati vaznini jismoni mashguland, on dar yak shaboruz to ba 2000 kkal merasad.
Mubodilai asosi dar asnoi bemorihoe, ki bo afzoishi faoliyati gadudi siparshakl vobastaand, surat girifta, hangomi bemorihoi marbut ba sustii kori in gadudho, inchunin barobari kohishi faoliyati gipofiz, gadudhoi boloi gurdayu uzvi tanosul va gurusnagii umumi sust meshavad. Ikhtiloli mubodilai safeda, angishtob, moddahoi minerali va obu namak gunogun ast. Vale hama navi mubodila bo yakdigar aloqamand meboshand. Ikhtiloli M. dar tagyiri tasiri mutaqobila va tabdili payvasthoi gunogun, barziyod gun gashtani mahsuli mobaynii metabolizm va nopurra yo az had ziyod judo shudani onho, nojurii jarayoni amaliyoti gunogun payvasta bo hosil shudani moddahoi ba organizm begona zuhur meyobad.
Tashkhisi M. ba tadqiqi mubodilai gaz, tanosubi miqdori moddahoi ba organizm dokhil va ikhrojshuda, muayyan kardani tarkibi khimiyavii khun, peshob va g. asos yoftaast. Muolijai ikhtiloli mubodila bartaraf namudani sababi on yo tabobati bemorii asosiero, ki payvasta bo tagyiri M. meguzarad, darbar megirad.

F. A. SHukurov.

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