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MUTOBIQAT

mutobikatMUTOBIQAT, adaptatsiya, qobiliyati ba sharoiti gunogun mutobiq gashtani mavjudoti zinda; istilohi «mutobiqat»-ro inchunin baroi ifodai natijai ravandi muvofiqat niz istifoda mekunand. M. faoliyati mutadili hayoti organizm va ba tagyiroti omilhoi gunoguni muhit, harorat, iqlim, balandi, unsurhoi siroyati (nig. Immunitet) va g. muvofiq shudani onro tamin menamoyad. SHaklhoi gunoguni M. mavjudand: sintezi hujayravii interferon, ki ba afzoishi virusho mone meshavad; surati balandi afzoishi mikroorganizmho; qobiliyati ba khobi zimistoni raftan; shino kardan, khazidan, paridan, davidan yo mustahkam dar yak jo andarmon shudan; qobiliyati muntazam nigoh doshtani harorati tan yo tagyir dodani on vobasta ba harorati muhit; mavjud budani uzvhoi makhsusgashtai nafaskashi, khungardish, hozima, inchunin hofiza, ki nafaqat ba sharoiti mavjuda, balki ba havodisi minbadai M. niz imkoniyat faroham meorad. Tasiri muhiti atrof ba odam az chandin omilhoi nufuzpaziri psikhologi, fiziki va khimiyavi iborat ast; binobar in reaksiyai M., ki ba hamesha nigoh doshtani muhiti dokhili ravona ast, ba hamon adad tagyiroti muttasilu intensivii mubdilai moddaho asos yoftaast. Azbaski mekhanizmhoi M.-i inson nihoyat murakkab buda, bo khususiyathoi ba onho khosi ijtimoiyu biologi muayyan karda meshavand, baroi omuzishi qonuniyathoi M. az komyobihoi bisyor fanho, mas., fiziologiya, biokhimiya, immunologiya, psikhologiya va g. istifoda mebarand.
CHunin namudhoi reaksiyai mutobiqat vujud dorand: boshiddat va tadriji, modarzodi (dar ravandi tahavvuli namud tashakkul yoftaast) va gayrimodarzodi (baroi har yak fard khost ast). Mas., kashishkhurii dastu poy az tasiri dard, shiddat yoftani nafaskashi, bosurat va boztaqsimi jarayoni khun hangomi kori jismoni, larzishi mushak va murgaki pust dar sarmo, ki ba afzoishi garmi musoidat menamoyad, baland shudani haddi darki shunavoi hangomi gavgoi baland –in hamai vokunishi shiddatnoki modarzodii M. meboshad. Ba vositai tamrin faqat darajai zuhuroti onhoro tagyir dodan mumkin ast, hol on ki vokunishi fardi (mas., malakahoi sporti) faqat bo rohi omuzish hosil khohad shud. Odatan, reaksiyahoi boshiddat khele sarfakoru makhsus (organizm mahz hamon shakli raftorro hosil mekunad, ki on be chunu charo natijai dilkhoh dihad) gardidaand, binobar in hamdigarro nametavonand ivaz namoyand. Mas., odati derinai dar jangal samtgiri baroi dar shahri noshinos justuju kardani nishonii darkori ba kor nameoyad. Binobar in, hangomi tagyiri sharoiti mehnat va maishat reaksiyahoi boshiddati M. metavonand ahamiyati mutobiqatro gum kunand.
Har yak organizm dar ravandi M. davrai ikhtiloli faoliyatro az sar meguzaronad, bad davrai muvofiqati nopurra (justujui faoli holati poydor) va dar okhir, davrai nisbatan muvofiqati poydor faro merasad. Allakay dar marhalai yakumi M., yane dar davrai ikhtiloli faoliyat, ba reaksiyai boshiddati muvofiqat tadrijan ravandhoe hamroh meshavand, ki baroi M.-i tadriji muhimand: faoliyati sistemai asabhoi vegetativi baland va dar khun miqdori gormonho ziyod meshavad. Hamai in boisi afzudani shiddati ravandi mubodilai moddaho va ba kor darovardani zakhirai vazifavii hujayra megardad va hamin tavr reaksiyai shiddatnoki M. ba «harakat» medaroyad.
Az hisobi in yo on mekhanizmhoi dokhilihujayravi surati ravandi mubodila taqviyat yofta, faoliyati dastgohi genetiki meafzoyad va dar natija hajmi khudi hujayra (bo istiloh gipertrofiyai korii hujayra) ziyod meshavad. Binobar in odamone, ki muntazam ba varzish shugl dorand, tadrijan vaznhoi peshtar bardoshta nametavonistai khudro mebardorand; odati ba norasoii oksigen tob ovardan baroi dar balandkuhho zindagi kardan musoidat menamoyad va g. M. ba sharoiti mehnat imkoniyat medihad, ki odam bo andake khastagi kori kamtarini peshtar zurnorasro ijro kunand. Dar reaksiyahoi tadrijii mutobiqat boz yak khususiyati ajib – ustuvorii hamatarafa hast, ki zaminai onro shaklhoi gunoguni reaksiyahoi tadrijii muvofiqat va tagyiroti mushobehi morfologiyu vazifavii organizm tashkil medihand. Ba tufayli chunin khususiyat organizm, ki mas., ba balandjoyho mutobiq shudaast, ba khunuki, garmi, norasoii oksigen, tagyiroti fishori atmosferi, ziyodatii radiatsiyai oftob, beharakatii zarurati va g. behtar tob meovarad; ustuvorii vay ba tasiri mikrobho, afkanishoti ionnok va dig. omilhoi bemorizo niz baland ast. Qat kardani tamrin mekhanizmi ravandi bozgashtro «ba kor meandozad», hajmi hujayrahoi «bemalol» korkunanda khurd meshavad.
Imkoniyathoi M.-i odam ba irsiyat, sinnu sol holati tandurusti va darajai tamrini on vobasta ast. Agar se omili avval to andozae «haddi nihoi»-i imkoniyathoi vokunishi muvofiqatro mahdud kunand, pas omili chahorum imkoniyathoi in haddi nihoiro amali megardonad. Kormandoni mehnati fikri, ki odatan tarzi hayoti kamharakat dorand, imkoniyati M.-ro purra istifoda namekunand, hatto andake kori jismoni onhoro zud khasta mesozad. Imkoniyati M.-i organizmro ba vositai mashqhoi muayyan, davomnok, muntazam, obutobi badan va g. rivoj dodan mumkin ast. Mashqhoi doimi, nizomi mehnat va istirohat, obutobi organizm nafaqat doirai M.-ro vase menamoyand, balki ravandi mavjudai M.-ro takmil medihand. Binobar in, varzish va obutobi organizm «sipar»-i etimodbakhshi bemoriho meboshand. Darajai M. bo khususiyathoi irsi va fardii organizm, sinnu sol, jins, holati tandurusti muqarrar karda meshavad. Binobar in, dar korhoi vaznini jismoni (sayohati kuh, obbozi dar zimiston va g.) imkoniyati khudro dar nazar doshta, ba ehtiyot raftor kardan zarur ast; bo iborai digar, zuri behuda zarar ovarda, boisi bemoriho megardad. Korhoi vaznini jismoni makhsusan dar miyonsoli va piri khavfnokand. Az in ru, takmili imkoniyathoi M. tavassuti mashq masalai murakkabu bahstalab ast, zero kori kam amalan befoida buda, kori vaznin mumkin ast falokat ovarad. Dar asosi maslihat va tahti nazorati dukhtur haddi etidol, yane nizomi baroi organizm muvofiqi takmiloti jismoni va biologiro yoftan zarur ast.

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