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Afzoishi aholi dar Tojikiston: shumora va kambudiho

Sanduqi nufusi SMM meguyad, afzoishi bosurati aholi dar Tojikiston ba boloravii sathi bekori, faqr va dar nihoyat ba kambudi mavodi gizoi dar miyoni sokinon munjar khohad shud. Namoyandai in maqomi SMM Maykl Djons in matlabro ruzi juma zimni barguzorii nishaste ba munosibati Ruzi jahonii aholi dar shahri Dushanbe bayon kard.

Faqironi serfarzand

Hamasola 11-umi iyul ba unvoni Ruzi jahonii aholi dar sarosari olam jashn girifta meshavad. Ammo guzorishhoi sozmonhoi baynalmilali hokist, ki afzoishi basurati aholi beshtar dar kishvarhoi faqiri olam ba mushohida merasad. Tojikiston az jumlai kishvarhoi sobiq SHuravi buda va besh az nisfi jamiyati on dar vazi faqr ba sar mebarad. Bonki jahoni peshgui kardaast, ki to soli 2015 aholii in kishvar hududi 50 darsad afzoish khohad yoft, ki mushkiloti iqtisodi va ijtimoiro ba bor khohad ovard.

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Boboi Qurbonali, sokini dehai Gulistoni nohiyai Vosei viloyati Hatlon 12 farzandro tarbiya karda va hamai onhoro oilador kardaast. Vay meguyad, har farzandash sohibi 4 to 7 farzand hast va naberavu aberaho dorad. Hamaknun hamrohi boboi Qurbonali se farzandash bor khonavodaashon zindagi dorand, ki dar jihati khonavu joyi istiqomat tanqisi mekashand. Aslan, boboi Qurbonali 73 sol dorad, ki bo 60 somoni, ba qavle davri nafaqa meronad.

Ammo dar qatori boboi Qurbonali hazorho khonavodahoe dar Tojikiston ba sar mebarand, ki hamaknun mushkiloti payomadi serfarzandiro mekashand. Albatta onho khushholand, ki Hudovand ba onho farzand dodaast, ammo nabudi joyi zistu kor, problemahoi ijtimoi va iqtisodi dushvorihoero ba ruzgorashon bor kardaast.

Afzoishi aholii kurrai Zamin

In dar holest, ki pajuhishi akhire, ki Markazi tahlilii amrikoii «Population Reference Bureau» (PRB) anjom dodaast, intizor meravad, jamiyati jahon dar soli 2050 ba 9,4 milliard nafar khohad rasid. In markaz afzoishi 97 darsadi aholiro az hisobi kishvarhoi faqirtarini jahon medonad.

Bar asosi in pajuhish, aholii Tojikiston, ki az jumlai kishvarhoi faqirtarin dar jahon mahsub meshavad, 84 darsad afzoish khohad yoft. In dar holest, ki afzoishi bashiddati jamiyat dar Tojikiston ba boloravii mizoni bekori, faqr va dar nihoyat ba kambudi mavodi gizoi dar kishvar munjar khohad shud.

Zuhro Ahmadova, namoyandai UNFPA yo Sanduqi nufusi CMM, niz dar in bora meguyad, «payomadi afzoishi jamiyat, muhojirati aholiro beshtar khohad kard. Zero bekori ziyod ast. Az sui digar afzoishi aholi, mushkilihoi dastrasi ba maktabu maorif va khadamoti behdoshtiro beshtar mekunad, ki albatta bia sathi zindagii aholi tasir dorad».

Hatari kambudi zamin va ob

Az sui digar masuloni Sanduqi nufusi SMM hushdor medihand, ki «agar hamzamon bo afzoishi aholi, dastrasii mardum ba zamin, obi nushoki va hamin tavr digar khadamot tavsea nayobad, dushvorihoi sangintarero metavon intizor shud».

In dar holest, ki mizoni sarshumorii aholi dar muddati ponzdah soli akhir dar Tojikiston tagyir nakarda va ba guftai Gulnora Salomova, kormandi Pajuhishgohi shugl va hifzi aholii Tojikiston, in kishvar dar miyoni kishvarhoi sobiq SHuravi dar zaminai tavallud dar maqomi avval qaror dorad, ki in amr az sababhoi aslii afzoishi aholi donista meshavad:

«Dar voqe tavalludi ziyod omili afzoishi aholi ast. Zero vujudi ananaho dar miyoni mardum, yane serfarzandi bosi shuda, ki mardum tavalludi ziyodro mepisandand. Az sui digar farzand baroi khonavodahoi tojik baroi ijroi korho zarur ast. Hamchunin poyin budani sathi ogohi va marifatnokii zanon az digar sababhoi afzoishi sathi aholi ast. Zero zanon dar tavalludi farzand tanzimro rioya namekunand va az tajhizoti zaruri baroi jilavgiri az tavalludi biduni fosila istifoda namebrand».

Barnomai benatijai tanzimi oila

Hamaknun Zuhro Ahmadova, namoyandai Sanduqi nufusi SMM dar Tojikiston meguyad, tanho rushdi masoil demografii aholi, ba khusus tanzimi khonavoda metasonad omili za bayn burdani payomadhoi nomatlubi ravnadi sarei afzoishi aholi dar Tojikiston boshad:

«Prezidenti Tojikiston zimni sukhanroniash dar mavzui tanzimi khonavoda va mushkiloti demografi dar mohi fevrali soli 2001 takid karda bud, ki oila boyad on tedod farzande doshta boshad, ki ba talaboti davlat va oila javobgu boshad. Raisijumhur naguft, ki boyad yak, du, se va yo chahoru panj va az on ziyodu kam farzand boyad dosht, balki bar on davat kard, ki afzoishi aholi naboyad ba vazi iqtisodi va ijtimoii mardum asar guzorad».

Ammo hamaknun bo guzashti 8 sol malum meshavad, ki barnomai davlati Tojikiston dar zaminai tanzimi khonavoda va tasisi markazhoi vija dar manotiqi mukhtalifi kishvar dar in rosto natijai muassire dar pay nadoshtaaast. Aholii kishvar ba ittiloi Kumitai omori Tojikiston dar muddati dah soli akhir besh az 1, 5 million afzudaast.

Jonibdoroni serfarzandi

Aslan Tojikiston az shumuli kishvarhoi shuravii peshin ast, ki mardumash ba serfarzandi tavajjuh dorad. Boboi Qurbonali, sokini nohiyai Vose, ki dar ogoz bo u suhbate doshtam, jonibdori bisyorfarzandi ast, ammo meguyad, «farzand atoi Hudo ast, rizqashro Hudo medihad. Farzand sohibi malumot va kor boshad, hatmand nafash ba digaron merasad. Ammo agar bekor boshad, dar nazdi digaron niz sari baland nadorad».

Harchand omori rasmii bekori dar kishvar hududi 3 darsadro tashkil medihad, ammo tahqiqothoi sozmonhoi mintaqai va baynalmilali in raqamro hududi 30 darsadi nerui qobili mehnat dar Tojikiston arzyobi mekunand. Afzun bar in mutakhassisoni arsa meguyand, solona dar in kishvar 100 hazor nerui qobili mehnat afzoish meyobad. In ast, ki dar muddati chand soli akhir muhojirati kori az Tojikiston ba khoriji kishvar dar holi afzoish buda va hatto buhroni jahonii moli va iqtisodi natavonistaaast, peshi rohi in ravandro bigirad.

Muhojironi nonovar

Davlat tedodi muhojironi mehnati dar khoriji kishvarro ba hududi 800 hazor va manobei gayrirasmi besh az 1 million nafar meguyad. Va musallam ast, ki tamini maishii aksariyati kulli mardumi Tojikiston niz az hisobi intiqoli puli muhojironi korii tojik az khoriji kishvar ast. Zero yak yo du nafar dar Rusiya kor mekunad, baqiya azoi oilai tojik, ki az 7 to 10 va az on beshtarro tashkil medihad, mekhurandu mepushand va zindagiro pesh mebarand. In ast, ki okhiri soli guzashta Barnomai gizoi SMM shumori mardumi niyozmand ba kumaki gizoi dar Tojikistonro hududi 1, 5 million nafar khonda bud.

Honavodai muysafedi Qurbonali, niz az jumlai mardumi niyozmande ast, ki ba guftai vay na hama vaqt gizoi kolorinok istifoda mekunand. Beshtari mavodi khurokai ini khonavoda, mahsuloti lubiyoi, sabzavot va karamu kartoshka ast. Dar hole, ki vay dar zamoni SHuravi shugli ronadagi bud va maoshi khube ham megirift, ki 12 farzandashro bo tamomi sharoit tamin mekard.

Az sui digar khonumash, kampiri Sangimo, pas az tavalludi farzandon az sui davlat kumakpuliho daryoft mekard. Vay unvoni «Qahramonmodar» -ro niz sohib shuda bud. Zero ba modarone, ki az nuh farzand ziyod doshtand, joizai «Qahramonmodar» doda meshud. Vale hamaknun dar davroni istiqloli Tojikiston in imtiyozot az bayn rafta va davlat khohoni tanzimi masoili demografi, ba khusus tanzimi tavalludi farzand ast.

In dar holest, ki sozmonhoi baynalmilali va Kumitai omori Tojikiston intizor dorand, ki aholii in kishvar ba 8 million nafar rasidaast. Zero qaror ast ba tarikhi 21 to 30 sentyabr dar Tojikiston baruykhatgirii aholi guzaronda meshavad. Nakhustin ba ruykhatgirii aholi pas az kasbi istiqlol dar Tojikiston 6 millionu 132 hazor nafarro tashkil doda bud.

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