Home / Biologiya / Zanburugi khamirturush – Sokht va ahamiyati on dar khojagii khalq

Zanburugi khamirturush – Sokht va ahamiyati on dar khojagii khalq

Bori avval soli 1680 ba olimi gollandi A. Levenguk muyassar shud, ki tavassuti mikroskopi ikhtirokardaash zanburugi khamirturushro binad va oidi on mushohida barad. Inchunin, in sanaro ogozi omuzishi olami mikroorganizmho medonand.

Sonitar, dar solhoi 30-umi asri 19 yak guruh olimoni shved va olmoni dar borai sokht va afzoishi zanburugi khamirturush malumoti mufassali ilmiyu-botanikiro hozir kardand.

Zanburugi khamirturush organizmi khurdi mikroskopi (vayro faqat dar zeri mikroskop didan mumkin ast) meboshad. SHaklash khele sodda buda, rishta paydo namekunad. Vay odatan az yak hujayrai kaloni bayzashakl, doirashakl yo kurachamonand iborat ast.

Rasmi 96. Zaiburugi khamirturush
Rasmi 96. Zaiburugi khamirturush

Zanburugi khamirturush bo rohi mugjabandi afzoish mekunad. Saravval dar hujayrai kaloni bolig barjastagii (dungichai) khurde paydo meshavad. Vay kalon shuda, ba hujayrai boligi mustaqip tabdil meyobad va az hujayrai asli (modari) chudo meshavad. Vale hangomi ba qadri kifoya mavjud budani muhiti khubi gizoi mugjabandi chunon boshiddat meguzarad, ki mugjakhoi navi dar khujayrai modari paydoshuda fursati chudo shudan paydo nakarda, dar on boz mugjai nav paydo meshavad va in holat khele davom mekunad. Dar natijai chunin mugjabandi khujayrahoi zanburugi khamirturush zanjiri sershokhai muvaqqatiro ba vujud meovarand. Dar vaqti norasoii moddahoi gizoi va dar sharoiti mavjud budani oksigeni barziyod dar dokhili hujayrai zanburugi khamirturush 4 yo 8-to spora paydo meshavad. Dar sharoiti muvofiq az in sporaho hujayrai navi khamirturush nashunamo mekunad.

Dar tabiat namudhoi ziyodi zanburugi khamirturush dar muhitkhoi gunoguni gizoi vomekhurand. Namudhoi muhimtarini onhoro oda- mon dar faoliyati hayotiashon az zamonhoi qadim injonib istifoda mebarand. YAke az chunin avlodho avlodi zanburugi khamirturushi qandi yo sakharomisetho meboshad. Hususan, du namudi in avlod — zanburugi khamirturushi non va pivo, ki navkhoi ziyodero darbar megirand, vase istifoda burda meshavand. Alomati kharakternoki in zanburugho dar on ast, ki moddahoi qandiro bo surati baland turshonida, spirti etil khosil mekunand. Hamai namudhoi in zanburugho az jihati shakli zohirii hujayraashon, afzoishashon (ki bo rohi mugchabandi surat megirad) va gayraho ba khamdigar monandand.

Zanburugi khamirturushi vino beshtar dar tabiat dar boloi mevahoi shirini rastaniho va khususan, angur paydo meshavad. Navhoi sermahsuli zanburugi khamirturushi non va pivoro, ki dar sanoati nonpazi va istehsoli pivo istifoda mebarand, asosan dar muhiti sergizo bo rohi suni parvarish mekunand. CHunki onho dar sharoiti tabii ba misli khamirturushi vino vonamekhurand.

Albatta, khar kadomi shumo noni az khamiri rasida va norasida pukhtaro istemol kardaed. Dar khamiri (noni) rasida zanburugi khamirturush hamroh mekunand va dar joi nisbatan garm nigoh medorand. Pas az chand vaqt dar natijai faoliyati zanburugi khamirturush qandi dar tarkibi khamirbuda ba spirt va gazi karbonati khorijshavanda tajziya meshavad. Dar ravishi in hodisa boz energiya khorij meshavad, ki on baroi amali gardidani faoliyathoi khayotii zanburugi mazkur lozim ast. Hubobchahoi gazi karbonati khorij- shuda boisi varam kardani khamir megardand. YAne khamir kovok shuda ba bolo bardoshta meshavad va merasad. Hangomi pukhtani non gazi karbonat va spirt zud khorij shuda, joi onho kovok memonad. Binobar on, noni az khamiri rasida tayyor kardashuda sabuk, kovok va khushkhur meboshad.

  1. Zanburugi khamirturush chi guna sokht dorad?
  2. Zanburugi khamirturush bo kadom rokhdo afzoish mekunad?
  3. Dar chi khel sharoitho zanburugi khamirturush bo rohi sporahosilkuni afzoish mekunad?
  4. Alomati khosi zanburughoi khamirturush dar chi zohir meshavad?
  5. Zanburugi khamirturushro dar kujoho istifoda mebarand?
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