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ZINDAGINOMAI USTOD RUDAKI

Bo tavajjuh bar on ki peromuni zindagii Ustod Rudaki qarib 200 sol dar Urupo, Rusiya, Omriko, Eron, Hinduston, Tojikiston va kishvarhoi arabi pajuhishgaroni ziyode tahkiqoti ilmi mebarand, hanuz ham dar zistnomai Ustod Rudaki nuqtahoi torik va masoili halnoshuda bisyorand. Az anbuhi farovoni pajuhishi muhaqqiqon navishtahoi donishmandoni nomi Herman Ette72, Eduard Braun73, Said Nafisi74, Sadriddin Ayni75 va Abdulgani Mirzoev76 ba arzishi khosi ilmi va tarikhi sazovorand. Hamchunin, adabiyoti mavjuda dar borai Ustod Rudaki dar osori Said Nafisi va Abdulgani Mirzoev pokizakorona va bo kamoli tavajjuh tahlilu jambast karda shudaand. Az in lihoz, moro zarur nest, ki in korro az sari nav anjom bidihem.

MAHALLU ZAMONI TAVALLUD

Zodgohi Rudaki dehai Rudak, ki yake az rustohoi nohiyai Panjakent meboshad, shinokhta shudaast. Aslan in deha az tavobei Samarqand donista shudaast, ki illati onro poyontar sharh khohem dod. Nakhustin khabare, ki dar in bora dar manobei khatti sabt gardida, hamon malumoti «Kitob -ul-ansob» ast. Muallifi on Tojulislom Abusaid Abdulkarim ibni Muhammad ibni Mansur ibni Abubakr Muhammad Tamimii Marvazii Samoni (506—562 / 1113-1166) dar in asari khud roje ba Rudak va Panjrudak chunin menavisad: «Al-Banji-bifath-il- bo-il- mujama, bivohidi va zammi-n-nun va fi-l-okhirihi aj-jim, hazihi-n-nisbatu ilo qariyati min qurroi Rudak bi navohiyi  Samarqand, yuqola laho Banjrudak.  Va  hiya  qutbi  Rudak  va min hazihi-

l-qariyati kona shoir-ul-maruf Abuabdulloh ar-Rudaki va sazkaruhu fi harfi-r-«ro» liannahu ashtahru bizalika va lakinnahu  kona min Banj.  Qola   Abusad  al-Idrisi  al-Hofiz: «Qabru  Abuabdulloh  ar-

Rudaki mashhurun biho, huva khalfa bustoni Banjrudak yazoru va qadd ziyoratuhu».77

Zodgohi Rudakiro Samoni az ruyi malumoti hamzamononi khudi Ustod, az jumla, az zaboni Idrisi (vaf. 406/1115), ki oromgohi Rudakiro ziyorat kardaast, chunin meovarad: «Al-Banji… nisbae buvad ba dehae az dehahoi Rudak, ki Banjrudakash guyand. Va on qutb (yane markaz)-i Rudak boshad va shoiri maruf Abuabdullohi Rudaki az hamin deha buvad. Dar harfi «ro» zikrashro khohem ovard, zero ba on shuhrat yofta, valekin az Banj buvad. Abusaid Idrisii Hofiz guyad: «Qabri Abuabdullohi Rudaki dar :on mashhur ast, dar pasi buston (yane bogot)-i Panjrudak, va onro ziyorat mekunand va man ham ziyorat kardam».

SHakli navishti arabii Panjrudak — Banjrudak bisyorihoro ba ishtiboh andokhtaast. Onho «Banj»-ro, ki ba sababi dar alifboi arabi vujud nadoshtani harfi «p» va bo «b» ifoda shudani on va, umuman, navishta nashudani harfi sadonoki kutoh, hol on ki «Bunj» va «Banuj» navishtavu hamin tavr ham khondaand, «panj» sabt kardanu khondan lozim bud.

Ustod Ayni ayni nakhustin tahqiqash, hanuz soli 1940, na tanho in ishtibohro az bayn burd, balki mahz Panjrud budani zodgohi Rudakiro bo tamomi daloyil isbot kard.

Dar akhboroti digari Samoni roje ba masofai bayni Rudak va Samarqand malumoti digare hast, ki ba on Sadriddin Ayni etibor nadodaast, ammo Abdulgani Mirzoev onro yak nav sodda sharh dodaast. Aniqtarash, agar Samoni masofai bayni Samarqandu oromgohi Rudakiro du farsakh gufta boshad. A. Mirzoev davo mekunand, ki masofai bayni Samarqandu Panjrud dah farsakh ast, ammo kotib «dakh»-ro «du» navishtaast. Vale faromush naboyad kard, ki matni Samoni arabi buda, dar on jo «alo farsakhayni min Samarqand» (yane «dar du farsakh az Samarqand», varaqi 262) navishta shudaast, ki dar on hech imkoni ba «du» tabdil yoftani «dah» nest. Ba fikri mo, Samoni na bayni Samarqandu Panjrudro, ki 15 farsakh ast (120 km), balki rohi bayni Panjrudu jodai asosii qad-qadi rudi Zarafshonro qayd kardaast, ki haqiqatan ham du farsakh (18 km) meboshad.

Samoni dar harfi «ro» roje ba Rudaki va zodgohi u menavisad: «ArRudaki, bi zammi -r-ro va sukuni -l-vov va fathi -z-zolilmujama va fi okhiriho al-kofu, hazihi-n-nisbatu ilo Rudak va hiya alo farsakhayni min Samarqand va-l-mashhuru minho ash-shoir-ul-maleh- ul-qavl bi-l-forsiyati, as-soyiru devonuhu fi bilodi-l-ajam: Abuabdulloh Jafar binn Muhammad binn Hakim binn Abdurrahmon ibn Odam ar-Rudaki -ash-shoir-us-Samarqandi, kona hasana-sh-sheru           va matina-l-qavlu; innahu avval man qola ash-sher -ul-jadid bi-l-forsiyati.  Qola  Abusaid al-Idrisi al-Hofiz: «Abuabdulloh Rudaki kona muqaddaman fi-sh-sheri bi-l-forsiya fi zamonihi alo aqronahu, yuravi an Ismoil binn Muhammad binn Islom al-Qozi as-Samarqandi hikoyata hakoho Abuabdulloh binn Abehamza as-Samarqandi lo nalamu lahu hadisan masnadan va badona raayyat lahu rivoyatu lam istahsana tarka zikrihi. Qola: va kona Abulfazl al-Balami vaziri Ismoil binn Ahmad voliyu Huroson yaqul: «Laysa lir-Rudaki fi-l-arab va-l-ajam nazirun va mota bi-r-Rudak sanati 329».78

YAne «Ar-Rudaki – ba zammi «ro» va sukuni «vov» va fathi «zoli mujama», ki az payi vay «kof» oyad, nisbate buvad ba Rudak va on dar dufarsakhii Samarqand voqe ast. Va az mashhurtarinoni on makon shoiri shahiri forsiguy, ki devonash dar  bilodi Ajam dargard  ast,  Abuabdulloh Jafar  ibni  Muhammad ibni Hakim  ibni  Abdurahmon ibni Odam Rudaki shoiri Samarqandist, ki sheri khubu sukhani matine dosht.  Guyand, u nakhustin kasest, ki ba forsi sheri naku gufta boshad. Abusaid Idrisii Hofiz guyad: «Abuabdullohi Rudaki dar sheri forsii  zamoni  khud  muqaddam  az  shoironi  digari hammaslaki khesh bud. Az Ismoil  ibni Muhammad ibni Islom Qozii Samarqandi hikoyate rivoyat kardaand, ki Abuabdulloh ibni Abuhamzai Samarqandi ovardaast, ki hadisi  musannade  baroi on  namedonem va pas az on ki rivoyate baroi on didem, khuddori    az zikri onro neku nadonistem, guyad: Abulfazli Balami-vaziri Ismoil ibni Ahmadi farmonravoi Huroson meguyad: « Rudakiro dar Arabu Ajam monand nestu dar    Rudak dar soli    329 vafot kardaast».    Soli 329 hijri ba  sanai 941   melodi musovist.

Ibn  al-Asir (555—630/1160—1233)  bo kame farq guftori Samoniro mukhtasar dar «Kitob-ul-bob fi tahzib-il-ansob»-i khud naql mekunad. Ustod Ayni nakhustin shakhse bud, ki dar kujo budani Rudakro aniqu daqiq ba isbot rasond. Dar in bora  Abdulgani Mirzoev meguyad: «Justujui tahqiqotii Sadriddin Ayni khele domanador buda, yakchand sol davom mekunad.  Ittifoqan, dar soli  1940 bo yak nafar mardikori zahmatobodi, ki baroi shikastu rekhti manzili u dar Samarqand davat shuda bud, musohib shuda, az u mefahmad, ki dar  nohiyai  Panjakent  du qaryae budaast, ki hanuz bo nomi «Rudak» va «Panjrud» (Panjrudak)  khonda meshudaand. Sadriddin Ayni bo akhboroti  in shakhs qanoat hosil  nakarda,  az digar odamoni Kuhiston niz mepursad. Hatto ba rohbariyati nohiya maktub navishta, khohish mekunad, ki mavjudiyati in du qaryaro tahqiq karda, masofai bayni onhoro mushakhkhas sozand va ba u khabar dihand. Hangome, ki dar borai in du qarya javobi munosib meoyad, u ba poytakht — ba Stalinobod murojiat namuda, talab mekunad ba on jo yak hayati tahqiqotii ilmi firistoda shavad».79 Hudi Sadriddin Ayni dar in bora chunin menigorad: «Bo takid masala  tamoman rushan hal shuda,

qabri Rudaki va qaryai Rudak yoft shuda bud. Aknun kori tanho ba in malumot yak shakli rasmi dodan monda bud. Binobar on, man ba Ittihodiyai navisandagoni Tojikiston, ba rafiq Dehoti, khat navishta, yak mamuriyat tashkil kardani ittihodiyai sukhanvaron va dar in mamuriyat shirkat namudani hayati Farhangistoni ulumi Jamohiri SHuravi va Instituti tahqiqotii Tojikstonro munosib didam».80

Haminro boyad ilova namud, ki mardi zahmatobodie, ki Abdulgani Mirzoev yodash mekunad, oqoi Diyori Farobi va rohbari hamonvaqtai Panjakent SHarofi Muhammadi budand. Dehai zodgoh va mahalli qabri Rudakiro dar baze qariyajoti girdu atrofi on Panjikrud niz meguyand, ki az qudmati on guvohi medihad.

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