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ZIYORATI QABRISTON: Odob, Qoida va Tartib

Har ki moro yod kard, Ezid mar-uro yor bod,
Har ki moro khor kard, az umr barkhurdor bod.

Mir Sayid Alii Hamadoni

Ummi Salama meguyad, ki Paygambari akram (s) farmud: «SHumoro az ziyorati qubur man karda budam, lekin aknun ijozat doram, ziyorat namoed. Ba tavri yaqin dar ziyorati qabr baroi shumo ibrat va pand ast».[1]

duoi-qabr

Nazmi Nizomii Ganjavi:

Zindadile dar safi afsurdagon,
Raft ba hamsoyagii murdagon.
Harfi fano khond zi hap lavhi pok,
Ruhi baqo just zi har ruhi pok.
Korshinose pai taftishi hol,
Kard az u bar sari rohe savol.
K:-In hama az zinda ramidan charost?
Rakht suyi murda kashidan charost?
Guft: Palidon ba magok andarand,
Poknihodon tahi khok andarand.
Murdadilonand ba ruyi zamin,
Bahri chi bo murda shavam hamnishin?
Hamdamii murda dihad murdagi,
Suhbati afsurdadil afsurdagi.
Zeri gil onon, ki parokandaand,
Garchi ba tan murda, ba dil zindaand.
Murda dile bud maro pesh az in,
Bastai har chunu charo pesh az in.
Zinda shudam az nazari pokashon,
Obi hayot ast maro khokashon.

Maqsad az ziyorati qabriston duo va ibratu narm shudani dil meboshad. Paygambar (s) guft: Manzare nadidam, ki na gur az on sakhttaru shanetar[2] ast.

Va Umar (raz) guft: Dar khizmati Paygambar (s) berun omadam va u ba guriston raft va nazdiki gure binishast va man nazdiktari mardumon budam bad-u. Pas bigirist va man ham bigiristam. Guft:

  • Turo chi megiryonad?

Guftam:

  • Ba giryai tu megiryam.

Guft:

  • In guri Omina ast dukhtari Vahb (yane, modari Paygambari Hudo (s). Az Parvardgori khud dasturi khostam, ki guri vayro ziyorat kunam, dasturi farmud. Va dasturi khostam, ki omurzish bikhoham, dasturi nafarmud. Bad-on sabab maro riqqate omad, chunonchi farzandro oyad.

Va Usmon (raz) chun bar gure biistodi, bigiristi, chunonki rishi u tar shudi va gufti, ki: Az Paygambar (s) shunidam, ki meguft: «Qabr avvalin manzilest az manozili okhirat, agar sohibi on az on birasad, onchi pas az on ast, osontar buvad. Va agar narahad, onchi pas az on ast, sakhttar boshad».

Va Mujohid (raz) guft: Avval chize, ki bo farzandi odam sukhan guyad on guri u boshad, guyad, ki: «Manam khonai kirmon va khonai tankhoi va khonai garibi va khonai toriki. In ast onchi man baroi tu sokhtaam, pas tu baroi man chi sokhtai?»

Va Buzar (raz) guft: Habar bidiham shumoro az ruzi darveshii khud? Ruze, ki dar guram.

Va Budardo (raz) bisyor nazdiki gur nishasti. Vayro az on pursidand. Guft: Bo guruhe menishinam, ki maro az maod[3] yod medihand va agar barkhezam maro gaybat nakunand.

Va Hotami Asam guft: Har ki ba guriston bigzarad va baroi khud andesha nakunad va eshonro duo naguyad, ham nafsi khudro va ham nafsi eshonro khiyonat karda boshad.

Va Paygambar (s) guft: Hej shabe naboshad, ki munodie nido nakunad, ki: Ey ahli gurho, az ki orzu mebared? Guyand: Az ahli masjidho, ki ruza medorand va mo namedorem va namoz meguzorand va mo nameguzorem va zikri Hudoi taolo meguyand va mo nameguem.

Va Sufyoni Savri guft: Har ki gurro bisyor yod kunad, onro ravzai bihisht yobad va har ki az zikri on gofil shavad, hufrae[4] az hufrahoi otash binad.

Va Rabei Haysam dar khonai khud gure sokhta bud va har goh ki dar dili khud qasovate[5] didi, dar gur rafti va galtidi va soate darang namudi, pas gufti: «Ey Rabe, bozgashti, aknun kore kun pesh az on, ki bozgashtan muyassar nashavad».

Maymuni Mehron guft: Bo Umari Abdulaziz ba guriston raftam. CHun u dar gurho nigarist, bigirist va guft: «Ey Maymun, in gurhoi aslofi[6] man ast Bani Ummiya, chunonasti ki eshon bo ahli dunyo dar lazzathoi eshon sharik nabudandi. Namebini eshonro daraftoda va uqubatho bar eshon nozil gashta va khazandagon az tanhoi eshon gizo sokhtaand». Pas bigiristu guft: «Ba Hudoy, ki kasero osudatar az on nadonam, ki ba gur ravad va az azobi Hudoi taolo emin buvad».

Bayt:

Gardid toza dogi fururaftagoni khok,
Dar chashmi dil maro zi tomoshoi lolaho,

Va dar «Mishkot» az Bayhaqi mursalan ovarda, ki on Hazrat (s) farmud: «Har ki ziyorati volidayni khud kunad, yo yake az on duro ruzi juma, omurzida shavad mar uro va navishta shavad uro neki». Va istigforu tasadduq baroi eshon niz hamin hukm dorad.

Ruboi:

Ba dunyo dil nabandad har ki mard ast,
Ki dunyo cap ba cap anduhu dard ast.
Ba guriston guzar kun, to bibini,
Ki davron bo harifonash chi kardast.

Muslim az Hazrati Oisha (raz) rivoyat menamoyad, ki Hazrati Oisha (raz) farmud: Har shab, ki Hazrat (s) ba manzili man tashrif meovard. Dar okhiri shab ba suyi Baqe tashrif meburd va mefarmud: «Salom bar shumo, ey ahli Baqe, onchi ba shumo vada doda shuda, fardoi qiyomat onro ba shumo khohand dod va mo ham ba shumo, inshoalloh mepayvandem. Hudoyo, ahli in qabristonro bibakhshoy».

Ziyorati qabriston sunnat ast ham baroi zanon va ham baroi mardon. Dar in zamon zanho na ba masjid rafta metavonand va na ba ziyorati qubur az jihati nolavu faryode, ki az onho sodir megardad, vale agar pirazanon baroi pandu ibrat giriftan ravand, ravost. (Durru-l-mukhtor).

Duoi ziyorati qubur in ast:

«As-salomu alaykum yo ahla-l-quburi yagfirullohu lano va lakum, lano khalafun va antum salafun va nahnu lahu bi-l-asari va ano inshoallohu bikumu-l-lohiqun».

Odobi ziyorati ahli qubur – qabriston

Tariqai sunnati ziyorati ahli qubur in ast, ki az tarafi poyi mayit istoda shavad va duoro istoda bikunad. Va az baroi duo dast bolo kardan ravost. Va dar vaqti duo kardan ru ba qibla kardan afzal ast. Va ru ba tarafi murda niz ravost. Ba qabr dast nihodan makruh ast. Va hamchunin busidani qabr va sanghoi mazorot makruh ast va in odati nasorost, valekin busidani qabri volidayn ravost. Sajda kardan ba qabr, yo tavof kardan ba davri qabr, agar baroi ibodat boshad, kufr ast va agar baroi tazim boshad, fisq ast. Qabrhoro kufta guzashtanu nishastan va dar boloi onho taom khurdan harom ast. Ru ba tarafi qabr namoz khondan va dar girdu atrofi qabr namoz khondan makruh ast, zero Paygambari Hudo (s) farmudaand, ki: «Metavon dar tamomi sathi  (ruyi) zamin namoz khond, ba juz qabristonu hammom».

Va az qabr hojat khostan ba aqidai tasalluti gaybi shirk ast. Agar ziyoratkunanda in aqidaro doshta boshad, ki sohibi qabr har vaqt az man bokhabar ast va ba man har chiz karda metavonad, in ibodat ast va agar in aqidaro nadoshta boshad, ibodat nest.

Va az jumlai amole, ki dar qabristonu mazorot harom ast, zabh kardani buzu gusfand va digar jonvaron meboshad, ki imruzho in amal bo farmudahoi folbinonu bakhshiho surat megirad. Agarchi on molhoro bo nomi Hudo zabh namoyand ham, gushti onho harom ast va nazrkunandai on kofir ast, agarchi namoz khonda kalima megufta boshad ham. CHunon ki SHaykh Sufi Allohyor (pah) dar kitobi «Maslaku-l-muttaqin» farmudaast.

Nazm:

Johilon, ki kunand zabh, ammo
Nazdi qabri mashoikhu shuhado.
Bar marizu gayri inho gar,
Zabh sozand, kardaand khabar:
Har chi gohe buvad ligayrilloh,
Garchi nomi Hudoi guft on goh.
«YAkfuruna bizolika»- binvisht,
Hud nigoh dor az fioli zisht.

Agar baroi qabr inro bigui, ki: «Ey buzurg, az Hudo savol kun, ki hojati maro purra kunad». Kase, ki shunidani murdagonro qabul dorad, in ravost va kase, ki qabul nadorad abas[7] ast.

SHokhi khurmo ba qabr mondan ravost. Gulhoro ba qabr – mondan ravost, vale agar puli onro sadaqa namoyand, behtar ast. Ba qabr gulbori kardan rasmi ahli dunyost, mamnu ast. Az qabr giyoh va darakhti sabzro buridan makruh ast.

Dar hadis omadaast, ki: Har kase az nazdi qabristone bigzarad va dah marotiba surai «Ikhlos»-ro khonda, savobashro bar ahli on bakhshad, ba adadi ahli on qabriston savob yobad. Va agar surai «YOsin»-ro bikhonad, azobi onruzai ahli on qabriston sabuktar gardad. Va hamchunin tilovati surahoi «Fotiha» va «Falaq»-u «Nos» va «Oyatu-l-Kursi» niz fazilate dorand.

Ba guriston raftani mardho mustahab ast. Va behtar ast, ki ruzhoi juma, shanbe, Dushanbe va yo panjshanbe pesh az baromadani oftob boshad. Va hamchunin dar vaqthoi sharif va muborak, ki dar onho mahalli ijobati duost, chun ruzi oshuro va arafa va gayri onho. Va hamchunin ziyorati qabri buzurgoni din, ba sharte ki amali khilofi shariat az on sodir nashavad, mustahab ast.

Dar hadis omadaast, ki: «Har ki ziyorat kunad guzashtagonro, farishtagon bad az vafoti u ziyorat kunand uro».

Va hamchunin dar khabar omadaast, ki: SHakhse ba Paygambar (s) az sakhtii dili khud shikoyat kard. On Hazrat (s) farmudand, ki: Se amal ast, ki dilro narm kunad: Dast bar sari yatimon molidan. Bemorpursi kardan. Ba ziyorati guzashtagon raftan.

Az SHaykh Abulhasan pursidand, ki:

  • Ziyorati guzashtagonro ba chi niyat boyad kard? Farmud, ki:
  • Ba chahor niyat bikunad: Avval, tazimi guzashtagon. Duvvum, on ki chun u bimirad, digare niz uro ziyorat kunad. Savvum, ba jihati ibrat giriftan, to ba toat ruy ovarad va az gunoh boz istadu parhez kunad. CHahorum, niyat kunad, ki Hudoi taolo bar vay maishati zindagoniro farokh gardonad, to ba gayr muhtoj nashavad.

Gazali Sadi:

CHi dil bandi dar in dunyo, ki murdori kalogon ast,
CHi binshini dar in manzil, ki okhir jumla vayron ast.
Tamoshogohi Firavn astu ishratgohi  Namrud ast,
Hazinadori Qorun ast, arusoroi shayton ast.
CHi dil bandi dar in manzil, nakardi tushae hosil,
Hama afsonaho botil, ki bozihoi shayton ast.
Nigar dar bogu dar buston, imorathovu shahriston,
Nazar kun suyi guriston, turo guyad chi farmon ast.
Makun bo simu zar kushish, nayobi juz kafan pushish,
Bikun bo khayrho kushish, ki duzakh joyi suzon ast.
Biyorand markabi chubin, na uro afsaru ne zin,
Daruni chodari gamgin na uro cap na somon ast.
Barandat suyi guriston, judo az kheshu farzandon,
Labi shirin, rukhi khandon khuroki moru muron ast.
Biyo, ey modari miskin, tu binshin bar sari bolin,
Duoyamro bigu omin, ki dardamro chi darmon ast.
Biyo, Ahmad, tu zori kun, Hudovando, Tu yori kun,
Bikun khayre dar in olam, ki jon az tan gurezon ast.
Biyo, ey Sadii miskin, dame bar khoki man binshin,
Bikhon tu surai «YOsin», savobi u farovon ast.

Anas ibni Molik (raz) guyad: Paygambar (s) az kanori zane guzasht, ki bar qabre nishasta bud va girya mekard. Paygambar (s) farmud:

  • Az khavfi Hudo az gunoh, biparhez va sabr doshta bosh.

On zan guft:

  • Az man dur shav, tu ba musibate, ki man ba on duchor shudaam, duchor nashudai.

On zan Paygambar (s)-ro nameshinokht. Ba u gufta shud, ki: «In Rasuli Hudo (s) ast». On zan baroi uzrkhohi ba peshi dari khonai Paygambar (s) omad. Did, ki darbone dar on jo nest, to uro bozdorad. Vaqte ki ba khidmati Paygambar (s) rasid, ba unvoni mazaratkhohi guft:

  • SHumoro nashnokhtam.

Paygambar (s) farmud:

  • Sabri komil va doroi ajr on ast, ki inson dar soati avvali nuzuli musibat az khud nishon dihad.

Oisha (raz) guyad: Ummi Habiba va Ummi Salama (raz) dar borai kanisae,[8] ki onro dar Habasha dida budand va dar on akshoe vujud dosht, suhbat mekardand va jarayonro baroi Paygambar (s) bayon namudand. Paygambar (s) farmudand: «In jamoat har vaqt insoni solehe, ki dar miyoni eshon bud, favt mekard, bar ruyi qabrash masjide mesokhtand va tasviri uro bar daru devor mekashidand. Ammo in ashkhose, ki bar qabri afrodi soleh masjid bino mekunand va aksi ononro dar on jo ba daru devor ovezon mekunand, dar ruzi qiyomat dar peshgohi Hudo badtarini mavjudot meboshand».

Oisha (raz) guyad: Paygambar (s) dar marazi vafotash farmud: «Lanati Hudo bar yahudu nasoro bod, chun qabri paygambarhoi khudro ba surati masjid darovardand». (Paygambar (s) musalmononro az in amal bar hazar dosht).

Oisha (raz) guyad: Agar in tars nabud, ki qabri Paygambar (s) niz ba surati masjid daroyad, onro baland mekardand, vale man metarsam, ki ba surati masjid daroyad.

Oisha (raz) guyad: Marde ba Paygambar (s) guft:

– Modaram sakta kard va favran murd. Aqida doram, agar metavonist harf bizanad, vasiyat ba sadaqavu ehson mekard. Agar baroyash sadaqavu ehson anjom diham, ajru savobash ba u merasad?

Paygambar (s) farmud:

– Bale. (Ajru savobash ba u merasad).

Tirmizi va Abudovud va Nasoi az Jobir (raz) ovardaand, ki guft: «Nahy[9] kard Rasuli Hudo (s), ki gaj karda shavad qubur va navishta shavad bar vay va bino karda shavad boloi on, yo gil karda shavad bar on va ziyoda karda shavad bar u. Va nahy kard az paysipar[10] kardani qubur va nishastani bar on». Va guftaand baze az ahli ilm, ki Hasani Basri az eshon ast dar gil kardani qubur rukhsat namuda. Va SHofei niz ham bar in ast.

Va niz Muslim va Abudovud va Tirmizi az Abulhayyoji Asadi ovardaand, ki: Guft maro Ali (raz), ki: Bifiristam turo bar chize, ki firistod maro bar on chiz Rasuli Hudo (s). Va guft: «Birav va maguzor hej timsolro, magar on ki mahv kuni naqshu surati uro va maguzor hej qabri balandro, magar on ki past kuni onro».

Baze az ahli ilm makruh medorand baland kardani qabrro az zamin.

Va SHofei guftaast, ki: Makruh medoram baland kardani qabrro, magar hamin kadar, ki malum shavad, ki in jo qabr ast, to poymol karda nashavad onro va nishasta nashavad bar vay.

Va qabri Hazrati Risolat (s) va sohibayhi niz ba zamin barobar ast. Va dar hadisi saheh omadaast, ki chun Usmon ibni Mazunro dafn kardand va vay avvali muhojirin bud, ki bad az hijrat ba Madina favt kard. Va on Hazrat (s) sangi garon bardosht va chun on sang bas garon bud, ostinho bimolid va ba zur hamla kard va bardoshta bar sari qabri vay nihod va farmud: «Alomatest, ki qabri barodari khudro mekunam va to dafn kunam nazdi vay har kasro, ki bimirad az ahlu ayoli man». (Abudovud). Va in dar vasati Baqe ast. Va Ibrohimro niz hamon jo dafn kard va bad az vay Zaynabro va qabrhoi ummahotu-l-muminin niz hamon jost.

Gazali Hojui Kirmoni:

Peshi sohibnazaron mulki Sulaymon bod ast,
Balki on ast Sulaymon, ki zi mulk ozod ast.
On ki guyand, ki bar ob nihodast jahon,
Mashnav, ey khoja, ki chun darnigari bar bod ast.
Har nafas mehri falak bar digare meaftad,
CHi tavon kard, ki in sifla chunin aftodast.
Dil ba in pirazani ishvagari dahr maband,
K-in arusest, ki dar aqdi hazor domod ast.
YOd dor in sukhan az man, ki pas az man gui:
YOd bod on, ki maro in sukhan az vay yod ast.
On ki SHaddod dar ayvoni zar afkandi khisht,
Hishti ayvoni shah aknun zi sari SHaddod ast.
Hoki Bagdod ba margi khulafo megiryad,
V-arna in shatti ravon chist, ki dar Bagdod ast.
Gar pur az lolai serob buvad domani kuh
Marav az roh, ki on khuni dili Farhod ast.
Haymai uns mazan bar dari in kuhnarabot,
Ki asosash hama bemavqeu bebunyod ast.
Hosile nest ba juz gam zi jahon Hojuro,
SHodii joni kase, k-az du jahon ozod ast.

Dar hadisi Muslim va Tirmizi va gayruhumo omada, ki: «Nanishined bar qubur va naguzored namoz ba suyi onho».

Va Abudovud va Nasoi ovarda, ki guft Rasuli Hudo (s), ki: “Haroyina binishinad yake az shumo bar akhtar va bisuzad jomahoi vay va birasad to pusti vay behtar ast az on, ki binishinad bar qabr».

Va niz ovardaand, ki on Hazrat (s) mardero did dar miyoni guriston, ki ba nalayn[11] meraft, farmud: «Bikash nalayni khudro».

Va az Ibni Abbos ovardaand, ki guft: «Lanat kunad Hudoi taolo zanonero, ki ziyorati qubur kunand va on kasonero, ki bar qubur masojid girand va charog afruzand». Va guftaand, ki nahy az charog afrukhtan bar qubur az jihati tazei mol ast, zero ki naf nest dar vay hej ahadero va az jihati ehtiroz[12] az tazimi qubur, chunonchi nahy az masojid giriftan az in jihat ast.

Va dar «Saheh» ovarda, ki: «Lanat kunad Hudoi taolo yahudro, ki giriftand quburi anbiyoi[13] khudro masojid».

Va namoz guzoridan dar mavojehi qabr makruh ast. Va baze dar maqbara niz makruh dorand.

Tanbeh. On chi musannif zikr karda, Haq ast va ahodisi saheha dar in bob vorid va asli sunnat dar zamoni nubuvvat va khulafoi roshidin va sahoba hamin bud. Valekin bad az in takallufot dar maqobir paydo shud va mufokhiratu mubohot bad-on roh yofta. Va dar okhiri zamon ba jihati iqtisori[14] nazari avom bar zohiri maslihat dar tamiru tarviji mushohid va maqobiri mashoikh va uzamo dida chizho afzudand, to az on jo ibhatu[15] shavkati ahli islom va arbobi saloh paydo oyad. Va dafn dar javori quburi sulaho va huzuru shuhud dar sohati izzati eshon mujibi barakat va nuroniyatu safost va ziyorati maqomoti mutabarruka va duo dar on jo mutovaris ast. Va dar ziyorati qubur ehtiromi ahli onro dar istiqbol va julusu tadib hamon hukm ast, ki dar holati hayot bud.

Bidon, ki on Hazrat (s) dar ibtido nahy karda bud az ziyorati qubur va dar okhir rukhsat kard va farmud: «Budam man, ki nahy mekardam shumoro az ziyorati qubur, aknun bikuned ziyorati quburro, ki on boisi beragbati dar dunyo va yoddihanda ast okhiratro». Va in mardonrost. Ammo zanonro baze guyand, ki boqist bar nahyi sobiq va eshonro berun omadan ba ziyorati maqobir joiz nest, illo ba ziyorati Hazrati Risolatpanoh (s). Va dar ahodis lanat voqe shuda bar zanone, ki ba ziyorati qubur baroyand. Va baze bar onand, ki in manu lanat dar avval bud, bad az rukhsat zanon niz dokhiland. Va mani eshon az jihati kamii sabr va bisyorii faryodu figoni eshon ast.

Dar «Kabiri» meguyad: «Agar bar guri mayit sabza baroyad, to zamone, ki sabz boshad onro daravidan nashoyad, ki modome onho tar boshand, tasbeh meguyand va savobi on mar on murdaro boshad. Va zamone, ki on giyoh khushk shavand, onhoro shoyad kandan, ki az tasbeh memonand».

Gazali SHaykh Attori Vali:

To dar in zindoni foni zindagoni boshadat,
Kunji uzlat gir, to ganji maoni boshadat.
In jahonro tark kun, to chun guzashti z-in jahon,
In jahonat gar naboshad, on jahoni boshadat.
Komu nokomi in zamon dar komi khud darham shikan,
To ba komi khesh fardo komroni boshadat.
Ruzake chande chu mardon sabr kun dar ranju gam,
To ki bad az ranj ganji shoygoni boshadat.
Ruyi khudro zafaroni kun ba bedorii shab,
To ba ruzi hashr ruyi arguvoni boshadat.
Gar ba tarki olami foni biguyi mardvor,
Olami boqivu zavqi jovidoni boshadat,
Subhidam darhoi davlatkhonaho bikshodaand,
Arza kun gar on zamon rozi nihoni boshadat.
To kay az behosili, ey piramardi bachchatab,
Dar havoi nafs mastivu garoni boshadat.
Az tani tu kay shavad in nafsi sagserat burun,
To ba suratkhonai tan ustukhone boshadat.
Gar tavoni kusht in sagro ba shamsheri adab,
3-on pas ar tu davlate juyi, nishone boshadat.
Gar bimiri dar miyoni zindagi Attorvor,
CHun daroyad marg ayni zindagoni boshadat.

[1] «Mukhtoru-l-ahodis». Sah. 446.
[2] SHanetar – qabehtar.
[3] Maod – joyi bozgasht.
[4] Hufra – surokhi, choh.
[5] Qasovat – sakht shudani dil.
[6] Aslof guzashtagon.
[7] Abas – befoida.
[8] Kanisa – kaliso.
[9] Nahy – man kardan.
[10] Paysipar – tahi po kardan.
[11] Nalayn — muza.
[12] Ehtiroz — parhez kardan.
[13] Anbiyopaygambaron.
[14] Iqtisor – kutoh kardan.
[15] Ibhat –shukuh.

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