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ZARFI RuZGOR

zarfi-ruzgorZARFI RuZGOR, masnuote, ki az filiz, safol, shisha, plastmassa, chub va g. sokhta meshavad. Zarfhoi filiziro az alyuminiy, latun, chuyan va g. istehsol mekunand.
Zarfhoi alyuminiro bo qolab yo bo usuli rekhtagari mesozand. Vobasta ba tainot zarfhoi qolabii alyumini bo vaznhoi gunogun istehsol meshavand: sabuk – gafsii tagash 1,5 mm, miyona – gafsii tagash 2 mm va vaznin – gafsii tagash 2,5 mm. Zarfhoi rekhtagarii gafsdevora (degho, tobaho) asosan baroi biryondan, bo dam va dar ob pukhtani khurok tain shudaand. Zarfhoi alyumini bo oroishi nuqrarangi bejilo, sayqaldoda, khromandudi jilodor, berang yo bo rangi gunogun istehsol meshavand.
Zarfi alyumini ba harorati baland ustuvor buda (harorati gudozishi alyuminiy 658°S), ba pastu baland shudani harorat tobovar ast. Hangomi dar zarfi alyumini taom pukhtan, rangu buy va mazzai khurok tagyir nameyobad. Dar zarfi alyumini taomhoi gunogun, az jumla taomhoi shur va dar tarkibashon kislotahoi organiki doshtaro pukhtan mumkin ast. Ammo dar on khurokro az 2 shaboruz ziyod nigoh doshtan lozim nest. Dar on karami tursh va bodiringro bo mahluli shur nigoh namedorand, zero alyuminiy az tasiri ishqor va kislotaho zud vayron meshavad. Pesh az ob yo shir jushondan, ba dokhili zarfi navi alyumini ravgan molidan zarur ast.
Baroi toza kardani zarfhoi alyumini yo filizi khokahoi «Permaksol», «Rakhsh», «Absolyut», «Pemolyuks» istehsol karda meshavand. Bo khokahoi sakht yo chutkai filizi shustani zarfi alyuminiy man ast. Baroi az siyohii ishqoru kislotaho toza kardan, zarfro bo sirkoi oshi pok va sipas bo obi garm shusta khushk menamoyand.
Zarfhoi pulodini sirdor, ruhandud, safedkarda niz istehsol meshavand. Zarfhoi pulodini sirdor az jihati khimiyavi ba kislotaho, namakho, sobun va ishqorhoi organiki tobovar meboshand. Onho khususiyati gigieni doshta, ba osoni toza meshavand; nafaqat baroi pukhtani taom ba kor meravand, balki dar onho muddati daroz nigoh doshtani khurokvori mumkin ast. Ammo dar in guna zarfho pukhtani khurokhoi gafs, khususan shavla, mumkin nest, zero tagi khurok sukhta, siri zarf vayron meshavad.
Baroi toza kardani zarfho va asbobhoi sirdor on moddahoe ba kor meravand, ki baroi toza kardani zarfhoi alyumini tavsiya shuda budand.
Zarfi pulodini ruhandudro az varaqai pulodi ruhandud, inchunin varaqai pulodi siyoh (masolehi tayyor bo ruhi gudokhta anduda meshavad) tayyor mekunand. Dar zarfi ruhandud taom pukhtan va jushondani obi nushoki mumkin nest, zero dar in mavrid namaki ruh hosil meshavad, ki ba salomatii odam zarar dorad. Dar chunin zarf khurokvori (mas., karam, zanburug va g.)-ro konservonidan man ast.
Ba ruhi anduda mahlulhoi turshi va ishqori (khokahoi jomashui), namaki osh tasir namuda, zud vayron mekunand. Zarfi ruhandudaro baroi jomashui, jushondani libos, nigoh doshtani ob, karasin istifoda burdan mumkin ast.
Dar zarfi pulodini safedkarda (bo omekhtai surb va qalagi) ob jushonidan mumkin nest, zero rang va mazzai choy digar meshavad. Andudai qalagi muloim ast, az in sabab onro bo khokahoi durusht toza kardan zarar dorad.
Zarfi pulodini zangnogir baroi pukhtani taomhoi ravon (odatan, devorahoi on tunuk ast) va baroi muddati daroz nigoh doshtani khurok istifoda meshavad; on khele mustahkam buda, zeri tasiri harorat vayron namegardad, mazzai khurokro digar namekunad.
Zarfi latuni baroi jushondani ob, pukhtani murabbo va g. istifoda meshavad; vay az zarfi alyumini va pulodini sirdor badoshttar ast.
Agar zarfi latuniro kam istifoda barand, bo mururi vaqt rangash digar va bo moddai sabz pushida meshavad. Ba chunin zarf kislotahoi organiki, shir, ravgan va dig. masolehi khurokvori tasir mekunand. Zarfi latuni, ki baroi pukhtani taom va jushonidani obi nushoki tain shudaast, odatan, az darun ba qalagi anduda meshavad. Tagorahoi murabbopazi boshand, bo qalagi anduda nameshavand, zero konsentratsiyai balandi shakar az tasiri kislotahoi organikii meva hal shudani ruhro mamoniat mekunad. Sathi berunii zarfro sayqal medihand va bo nikel yo khrom rukash mekunand.
Zarfhoi chuyani baroi biryon kardan, taf dodan va tabkhir (bo bug pukhtan)-i taom istifoda meshavand. Zarfhoi chuyanii siyoh istehsol karda meshavand, ki az yak yo har du tarafashon bo siri shishagin anduda shudaand. Zarfi chuyani sathi shakhshul dorad, az in sabab ba on nigohubini khub lozim ast, dar aksi hol chuyan zud zang mezanad. Zang ba organizmi inson zarar narasonad ham, mazza va rangi taomro digar mekunad. Gayr az in namakhoi ohan vitaminhoro nobud mesozand.
Zarfi chuyanii sirdor ba kislotahoi organiki, namakho, sobun va ishqorho ustuvor ast. Zarfi sirash paridaro baroi pukhtani taom istifoda burdan tavsiya nameshavad.
Zarfhoi safoli, odatan, bo ranghoi makhsus oroish doda meshavand. Zarfhoi safolii chini, fayansi, sirdor (koshi) va kuloli az ham farq mekunand. Zarfhoi chini gilmoyai safedi pukhta doshta, bo qabati tunuki siri jilodor, ki ba tasiri kislota (javhari limu, javhari sirko) ustuvor ast (kordi pulodin onro nametaroshad), rukash karda meshavad. Hangomi ba labi zarf ohista zarba zadan, sadoi nozuki bardavom mebaroyad. Alomati farqkunandai chini az digar masnuoti safolii gilmoyaash safed on ast, ki az joyhoi tunuki on tarafi digarashro didan mumkin meboshad. Zarfhoi chini bazan bo gilmoyai ranga yo siri ranga istehsol karda meshavand.
Zarfhoi fayansi gilmoyai safedi masomador doshta, namiro ba khud megirand. Onho bo siri berang anduda meshavand, ki hatto qabathoi tunukashon ravshaniro nameguzaronad. Hangomi ba labi zarf ohista zadan, sadoi past mebarorad. Zarfhoi fayansi nisbat ba zarfhoi chini taqriban 15 – 20% kamdosht va vaznashon niz sabuk ast. Onhoro metavon dar ruzgor (ba misli kosavu tabaqchaho, kuzachaho, bankahoi birinju lubiyogiri va g.) istifoda burd.
Zarfhoi koshi gilmoyai sermasoma va siri rangai noshaffof dorand, vale bazan bo jiloi filizi anduda meshavand. Zarfhoi koshii gilmoyaashon safed niz istehsol karda meshavand; tarkibi onho ba tarkibi fayans monand ast. Zarfhoi koshi ba namudi kuzacha, nondon, ravgangirak, guldon va g. barovarda meshavand. Zarfi safoli gilmoyai ranga dorad (odatan, bo tobishi jigari) va ba qismi dokhilii on sir davonda meshavad. Az safol asosan tabaq, kosa, guldon mesozand.
Zarfhoi shishagin bo du usul – puf kardan va dar qolab rekhtan istehsol karda meshavand. Zarfhoe, ki bo rohi puf kardan mesozand, odatan, qabati tunuk doshta, az shishai muqarrari, bazan az shishai ranga meboshand. Baroi oshkhona zarfhoi shishagini gunogun istehsol karda meshavand (baroi ob, salat, sharbat va g.).
Dar zarfhoi shishagini qolabi, ki az shishai otashbardor sokhta meshavand, taom pukhtan mumkin ast. Zarfhoi shishagini otashbardor nisbat ba zarfhoi filizi behtar buda, garmiro der nigoh medorand, buy va mazzai taomro digar namekunand. Hangomi istifodai onho baze qoidahoro rioya boyad kard: ba alangai kushod panjarai filizi guzoshtan lozim; zarfi tafsonro ba joi taru khunuk guzoshtan mumkin nest, dar aksi hol on mekafad.
Zarfi shishaginro bo chutka, latta yo dastmolkadu boyad shust. Baroi toza kardani zarfi shishagin reg, dastmoli filizi va g.-ro istifoda namebarand. Hangomi shustani zarfhoi gardanborik (shisha, grafin) chutkahoi makhsusro kor mefarmoyand. Gayr az in ba zarf kame puchoqi tukhm yo puchoqi kartoshka, kogazmayda andokhta az boloyash obi garm (az nim ziyodtar) merezand va kamtar onro mechayqonand, sipas onro az zarf rekhta bo obi garm (harorati obro tadrijan baland karda) meshuyand.
Zarfhoi bulurinro bo obi garm naboyad shust, zero rangi bulur khira va tobishash gum meshavad. CHunin zarfho bo obi shirgarm va hatto khunuk ba zudi toza khohand shud.
Zarfhoi plastmassi nisbat ba zarfhoi shishagin, chini yo fayansi badosht buda, ba osoni shusta meshavand. Zarfhoe, ki az baze namudhoi plastmassa (masalan, aminoplastho) sokhta meshavand, ba harorati obi jushon (100°S) tob meorand; masnuoti az shishai organiki yo polistirol sokhtashuda dar harorati 70 – 75°S kaju kileb meshavand. Zarfhoi polietileni niz dar harorati 100°S shakli khudro tagyir medihand.
Usuli istifodai hama guna khoka va khamiraho baroi toza kardani zarfhoi iflos chuninand: ba lattai tar yo chutka kamtar khoka (khamira)-ro girifta sathi peshaki tarkardai zarfro toza mekunand, sipas onro bo ob nagzakak meshuyand. Hangomi bo mahlulho toza kardani zarf latta yo isfanjro ba on tar karda ba sathi zarf memoland va onro 15 – 20 daqiqa nigoh medorand, sipas bo ob meshuyand.
Tarzi istifodai har yak modda dar tamgakogazi on zikr shudaast.
Zarfi kudak. Baroi tayyor kardani khuroki kudak va khurondani u zarfi alohida judo boyad kard. Agar kudak bo khuroki suni parvarish yobad, 6 – 8 shishachai chenakdor, 2 – 3 pistonak mekharand. Pistonakro bo suzani tafson surokh mekunand, ki az on surokh har 2 – 3 soniya yak qatra shir chakad. Agar kudak sinamak boshad, az in shishachaho 2 – 3 dona baroi ob va sharbat giriftan zarur ast. Gayr az in, baroi ba shishachaho rekhtani shir qifi khurd, baroi shustani in shishachaho chutka kharidan lozim. Baroi jushondani zarfhoi kudak degcha doshtan ham hatmist. Minbad baroi khurondani u tabaqchayu kosa, qoshuqu qoshuqcha va baroi pukhtani shavla, shurbo va g. degchai alohida judo kardan lozim meshavad. Huroki tayyorro dar zarfi sirdor yo shishagi nigoh boyad dosht. Dar zarfi sirash parida khurok nigoh doshtan mumkin nest.
Baroi tayyor kardani shakidai sabzavot yo meva az turbtaroshi filizi istifoda nabared, zero vitamini S ba filiz rasad, tez vayron meshavad. Behtarash az kordi pulodii zangnogir va turbtaroshi plastmassi istifoda kardan lozim ast. Zarfi kudakro hamesha toza nigoh dored va har ruz jushoned. Hangomi baroi kudak khurok tayyor kardan, ba qoidahoi behdosht qati rioya kuned.

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