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ZANBuRUG

zanburugZANBuRUG qorch, samorug, rastanihoi darajai past, ki khlorofill nadorand. Dar qatori olami nabotot va hayvonot Z.-ho niz yak olami mustaqili tabiati zinda ba shumor meravand. To ba qaribi Z.-ro ba olami nabotot nisbat medodand, ammo badi muayyan kardani tafovuti bayni gizoi rastaniho va Z. onro hamchun olami mustaqili tabiat judo kardand. Z.-ho organizmi be khlorofill meboshand. Gizoi Z.-hoi parazit boftahoi zindai nabototu hayvonot mahsub meshavand. Z.-hoe niz hastand, ki yakjoya bo rastanihoi digar meruyand.
Z. dar hama jo – dar zamin, ob va havo mavjud ast. Mavqei on dar tabiat va hayoti inson khele kalon meboshad. Z. ba qatori organizmhoe, ki ahamiyati kaloni amali dorand, mansub meboshad. Z.-ho khurdanibob, zahrnok, muolijavi meshavad, bazei onho khususiyati pusondani darakhthoro ham dorand. Dar tarkibi Z. fermentho mavjudand, ki boisi vayron shudani ligninu sellyuloza, tajziyai boqimondahoi rastani va hosilkhezii zamin megardand. Z.-ro baroi istehsoli non, pivo, panir, jurgot va g. farovon istifoda mebarand. Z.-ho boisi kasalii nabotot, hayvonot va odamon niz meshavand.
Holo taqr. 100000 navi Z. ba ruykhat girifta shudaast. Z.-ho ba guruhhoi ziyod judo meshavand: khitridievho, zigomisetho, omoisetho, khaltador, nomukammal va g. Vale az in miqdori ziyod asosan Z.-hoi telpakchador istemol meshavand (telpakcha va poyai onho az khok berunand). Z.-ro saharii barvaqt, barobari tului oftob, (shabnam parokanda nashuda) yo dar asnoi boron chidan behtar ast. Z. ehtiyotkoriro mepisandad va onro uhdabaroyona boyad chid. Agar hangomi chidani Z. boloyashro az khasu khoshok va bargu alafho toza kuned, on khushk meshavad, yane az kanda giriftan tamoman mahv megardad. Baroi on ki reshai Z. 10 – 25 sol hosil dihad, onro bodiqqat meburand yo dar atrofi poyaash du – se marotiba ehtiyotkorona tob doda, ohista mekanand. Dar natija reshai Z. va chuqurchae boqi memonad, ki onro bo khoku bargho pushondan mumkin ast.
Z. mahsuloti purqimati khuroki va zudhazm ast. Dar tarkibash obi ziyod doshta, az on khurok pukhtan oson meboshad. Z. tamu bui khush, moddahoi sergizo, vitaminho (A, V, D, RR, S) dorad. Az hamin sabab, on chun mahsuloti khuroki mamul gashtaast. Gayr az in Z. az payvasthoi fosfor, sulfur, kaliy, khlor, ruh, mis, khrom, ohan va dig. mikroelementho boy buda, az 2,8 to 5% safedahoi zudhazm dorad. Mahz baroi hamin onro «gushti jangali» yo «gushti rastani» menomand. Moddahoi ravgani lipoidho va fosforidhoi tarkibi Z. zudhazm meboshand. Qandi tarkibi Z. (glyukoza) onro sergizo va shirin mekunad. Ravganhoi efiri Z.-ro boz ham khushbuytar menamoyand. Ba odamoni solim hamai taomhoi zanburugi foida dorad. Ammo shakhsone, ki ba kasalii jigar, medayu ruda giriftorand, boyad az istemoli taomhoi zanburugi khuddori kunand.
Odamon az zamonhoi qadim Z., navhoi khurdani va zahrnoki onro meshinokhtand va dar ruzgor istifoda meburdand. Avvalin sarchashmai khatti, ki dastrasi most, ba a. 4 taalluq dorad. Olimi YUnoni Qadim Teofrast dar asarhoi khud bori avval shampinyon, tryufel va dig. Z.-hoi mamuli zamonashro nom burdaast.
Dar asari Abuali ibni Sino «Al-Qonun» roje ba Z. hamchun gizo va vositai tabobat malumoti muhim ovarda shudaand. Olimi buzurgi tojik 1030 sol qabl az in zanburugro ba guruhho judo karda bud va nuqtai nazari u to kunun ba inobat girifta meshavad. Ibni Sino Z.-hoi malumi zamonashro ba chor guruh judo kardaast: «Qala» (shampinyon) – zanburughoi khurdani; «kama» (tryufel) va «kushnaj» (marsiel) – Z.-hoe, ki bad az shustanu jushondan khurda meshavand; «garikum» – Z.-hoi darakht, ki khususiyati muolijavi dorand; ba guruhi chahorum Z.-hoi zahrnok (zanburughoe, ki nomi makhsus nadorand) mansuband.
Soli 1903 P. E. Skvorskiy Z.-hoi khurdaniro, ki dar qalamravi hozirai Tojikiston pahn shudaand, nombar karda, makhsusan roje ba shampinyoni sahroi va burmazanburugi bogiyu dashti mufassal malumot dodaast. Holo dar Tojikiston ziyoda az 50 navi Z. mavjud ast. Onho dar jangalhoi kuhi, chakalakzor, dar bekhi darakhtoni safedoru bed, sahroyu bog, charogohu margzor meruyand.
Harchand dar jumhuri navhoi Z. ziyod ast, odamon to 10 namudi onro mechinand. Dar bayni Z.-hoi khurdani Z.-i sahroii safedro, ki dar bayni alafhoi kuhi meruyad, nombar kardan joiz ast. Diametri telpakchaash 15 – 20 sm (bazan to 50 sm). Zanburugi nihoyat bolazzat buda, mardum onro bo mayli tamom mechinand. Az Z. taomhoi gunogun tayyor kardan va onro dar namaku sirko khobondan mumkin ast.
SHampinyon yake az behtarin Z.-hoi istemolbob mahsub meshavad. Dar jumhuri chand navi on – muqarrari, pulakchador, dashti, safed, duspora, duhalqa va shampinyoni zahrnoki zard mavjud ast. Onho dar teppayu maydon, margzoru charogoh, polezu dasht, bogu chorbog va dar zaminhoi serporu meruyand. SHampinyoni muqarrari guruh-guruh meruyad. Telpakchaash nimkura buda, boloyash hamvor ast; rangash safed, bazan zardchai siyohtob, pulakchador, diametrash 5 – 15 sm. Tanaash rosti kutoh va safed, dilaash muloim; hangomi kandan bui khush mebarorad. Onro mejushonand, biryon mekunand va dar sirko mekhobonand.
SHampinyoni duspora dar bisyor mamlakathoi jahon parvarish karda meshavad. SHampinyoni zahrnok niz mavjud ast. Rangi on zard buda, shaklan shampinyoni muqarrariro memonad. Hangomi shikastani poyaash dilai zardchatobi on namoyon shuda, az khud bui karbola mebarorad.
Bahoron dar girdu atrofi Dushanbe, talu teppaho, bogu zaminhoi hosilkhez Z.-i volvariellai zebo duchor meshavad. Telpakchaash zangulashakl, luobdor, safed ast; diametrash 6 – 12 sm. Pulakchahoyash avval safed buda, tadrijan rangi gulobi megirand. Poyaash ustuvonashakl, lundai safed va mavjdor, dilaash safed, hangomi pukhtan va dar sirko khobondan khelo bolazzat meshavad.
Aksar vaqt dar alafzorho hamrohi volvariellai zebo strofariyai telpakchaash zard vomekhurad. Bazei qitaho az in navi Z. pur shudaand. Telpakchai on nimkura ast; bad barjastai hamvor, kamluob, zardi baland meshavad (diametrash 4 – 6 sm). Pulakchahoyash bunafshrangi kanorhoyash safed, poyaash safedcha, khathoi mudavvar dorad; dilaash safed, khushbuy va khushtam. Dar sirko va namak khobondai on khele bolazzat ast. Biryon ham mekunand.
Veshenkai muqarrariro baze mutakhassison binobar az tiramohu zimiston to bahor rustanash Z.-i zimistoni nomidaand. Onho guruh-guruh dar bekhi darakhtoni pahnbarg va suzanbarg (bed, safedor, chanor, zarang, sanavbar) meruyand. Telpakchaash ba qifi kalon monand ast; rangash buri siyohtob, zardi khokistari, diametrash 5 – 20 sm. Pulakchahoyash safed yo zard, poyaash ustuvonashakli kutoh, safed (bazan bepoya niz meshavad). Dar avval dilaash muloim, sonitar sakht megardad; rangash safed, tam va bui khush dorad. Onro objushu biryon kardan va dar sirko khobondan mumkin ast.
Okhirhoi tiramoh dar bogu darakhtzorho Z.-i zimistoni paydo meshavad. Vale na hama medonand, ki on Z.-i khurdanbob ast. Onro objushu biryon kardan va dar sirko khobondan mumkin. Z.-i zimistoni, odatan, dar tana va bekhi darakhtoni pahnbarg, makhsusan dar bekhi darakhtoni bed meruyad. Telpakchaash barjasta, muloim, zardi asalmonand, miyonajoyash siyohtob buda, dar havoi namnok shilmak meshavad; diametrash 3 – 8 sm. Pulakchahoyash safed, poyaash ustuvonashakl, bazan kaj, makhmalin; qismi boloi poyaash zardi ravshan, qismi poyonash zardi dorchinnamo. Dilai zard va tami khush dorad; buyash muqarrarist.
Tusqorchho (tusqorchi muqarrari va khokistarrang) ba guruhi Z.-hoi naychashakl dokhiland. Onho dar jangali darakhtoni tus va safedor meruyand. Telpakchai tusqorchi muqarrari avval barjasta, sipas bolishtshakl meshavad; rangash buri khokistarist. Qabati naychashakli masomadori on (sathi poyoni telpakcha) az magzash (khokistarii bur) ba osoni judo meshavad. Poya va dilaash safedtob; tamu buyash muqarrarist. Tusqorchi khokistarrang zohiran ba tusqorchi muqarrari monand ast, vale az on bo telpakchai purchini siyohtob, poyai tur-tur, pulakchahoi dorchini va dilai bunafshrang farq mekunad. Onro dampazu biryon kardan va dar sirko khobonda istemol namudan mumkin ast.
Hangomi borongari dar kuhho ba miqdori ziyod Z.-hoi boroni (kallakalon, khaltamonand, bunafshrang, borutii khokistarrang, borutii siyoh) paydo meshavand. Bisyoriho ahamiyati chunin Z.-horo namedonand. Z.-i boronii navrasta sakht va dokhilu berunash safed meshavad. Az on gizohoi gunogun – shurbo, zanburugbiryon tahiya kardan mumkin ast; onro ba gushti qima niz hamroh mekunand.
Ba Z.-hoi khaltamonand burmazanburugi muqarrari, konusshakl, sahroi, duraga va g. mansuband. Onho bahoron (okh. mart – avv. aprel) dar beshahoi darakhtonashon pahnbarg, boghoi meva, margzor, vodiho va domanai kuhho meruyand.
Burmazanburug tur-tur buda, telpakchaash chindor, rangash khokistari yo siyoh ast; kanorhoi poyonash ba poya zich payvast gashtaand. Dilaash muloim, zudshikan, bui khush dorad.
Az burmazanburug taomhoi nihoyat bolazzat tayyor mekunand. Onro dar ob pukhtan, biryon kardan va khushkondan mumkin ast; bui ajib dorad.
Zanburughoi zahrnok. Nadonistani farqi Z.-hoi zahrnok va khurdani, inchunin beehtiyoti hangomi chidani onho sababi asosii zahrolud shudani odamon megardad. Bazan az Z.-hoi khurdanii khushsifat niz agar az meyor ziyod istemol namoyand (makhsusan ashkhosi jigar va medaashon illatnok), inchunin hangomi istemoli Z.-hoi az had ziyod pukhtarasida zahrolud shudan mumkin ast. Az in ru, Z.-hoi zahrnok va khurdaniro az hamdigar farq karda, alomathoi zohirii onhoro boyad donist. Faqat on Z.-hoero chidan lozim ast, ki khub meshinosed.
Dar Tojikiston 8 namudi Z.-hoi zahrnok meruyad: zahrqorch, kundaqorchi zard, kundaqorchi khishtrang, zardtobi konusshakl, qorchi buynok, qorchi gulobi, telpaki qozi (dutoi okhir margovar meboshand).
Zahrqorch dar beshai darakhtonash pahnbarg, darakhtzoru bogot, charogohho ruida, ba Z.-hoi khurdani bisyor monand ast. Asosan bo rangi zardi telpakchayu poyaash farq mekunad. Kundaqorchi zard telpakchai zardi surkhchatob dorad. Pulakchahoyash nazarrabost (zardi baland, khokistari, tadrijan zaytunii bur meshavad). Qorchi khishtrang nomi khudro az rangi balandi telpakchaash giriftaast (miyonajoyash khishtrang, rangi kanorhoyash ravshantar). Pulakchahoi buri zaytuni dorad. Farqi kundaqorchi haqiqi az qalbaki dar hamin ast, ki poyai on halqa nadoshta, dilaash badbuy va talkh meboshad.
Zanburugi konusshakli zardtob dar alafzorhoi kushod, bayni rastanihoi khushadori kuhi meruyad. Telpakchaash konusshakl, zardi baland yo norinji buda, pesh az pukhtan siyoh meshavad. Pulakchahoyash zard, poyaash zudshikan, telpakchaash siyoh, dilaash muloim, zard; buyu tami makhsus nadorad.
Qorchi buynok dar bedzor, bog va yuganzor meruyad. Telpakchaash zangulashakl, donachador, safednamo; miyonajoyash dorchinrang. Pulakchahoyash safedtob, tanaash safedchai qaymoqrang, dar qismi bolo halqa dorad. Dilaash safed, hangomi buridan gulobirang meshavad; buyash nokhushi nafasgir.
Qorchi gulobii bur zahrnoki margovar ast. Guruh-guruh dar bogu darakhtzor, teppa va alafzorho meruyad. Telpakchaash pahn, jigarrangi khokistari, dar navrastagi muloim buda, badtar onro pulakchahoi dorchini faro megirand. Qismi boloi tanaash safedcha, qismi poyonash jigarii baland. Dilaash zardtob ast; az on bui meva meoyad va badi khushkidan badbuy meshavad.
Telpaki qozi Z.-i zahrnoki margovar ast. Tiramoh dar chorbog va alafzor judo-judo yo guruh-guruh mesabzad. Telpakchaash barjasta, safedtob, gulobii burtob, kanorhoyash ravshan; pulakchahoi surkhcha dorad. Tanaash safedcha, bekhash andake gafs; dilaash safed, buy va tami makhsus nadorad.
Istifodai zanburug dar pukhtu paz. Z.-hoi taru toza, khushkonida, namakin va dar sirko khobondaro dar pukhtu paz istifoda mebarand. Az onho taomhoi bolazzat – shurbo, kabob, pirog va g. tayyor mekunand. Z. tez vayron meshavad, az in ru badi chidan, onro zud baroi istemol tayyor boyad kard. Z.-ro az rui navu sifat baroi khurokhoi gunogun istifoda mebarand, mekhushkonand, dar sirkoyu namak mekhobonand. Baroi khushkonidan va dar namaku sirko khobondan Z.-i taru toza sakht va noshikastaro intikhob kardan lozim ast.
Nig. niz Zahroludi az zanburugho.

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