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ZANBuRUGHOI MIKROSKOPi

zanburughoi-mikroskopiZANBuRUGHOI MIKROSKOPi, yak guruhi kaloni rastanihoi darajai past. Aksariyati muhaqqiqon bar in aqidaand, ki Z. m. az obsabzho ba vujud omadaand, zero ba onho bagoyat monand meboshand. Z. m. olidaraja (askomitsetho) va pastdaraja (magorhoi mukori) meshavand. Aksariyati Z. m. az moddahoi organikii fosidshudai naboti yo hayvoni gizo megirand, yane onho saprofit meboshand. Digar guruhi Z. m. parazit buda, az rastaniho, hasharot, parrandaho, hayvonot va odamoni zinda gizo meyoband.
Z. m. dar gardishi moddaho dar tabiat naqshi muhim dorand; onho misli bakteriyaho moddahoi organikiro fosid sokhta, boisi paydoishi porukhok megardand. Z. m. nazar ba bakteriyaho az hujayrahoi hajman kalon va sokhti murakkab tarkib yoftaand. Andozai hujayrahoi Z. m. az chand to sadho mikron meshavad; hujayraho lifofa dorand (az moddahoi nitrogeni iborat ast). Jismi hujayra doroi protoplazma meboshad, ki az yak (aksaran az chand) yadro, safedaho, charb, glikogen, kislotahoi oksalat, limu va g., hamchunin namak, pigmentho tarkib yoftaast. Sokhti aksari Z. m. asosan yakkhela ast. Onho az rishta (gif)-hoi darozu kutoh va gafsu borik tarkib yoftaand; rishtaho ba shokhchaho judo shuda ba ham mepechand va mitseliyro tashkil medihand. Agar rishtaho dar rui muhiti gizoi sabzand, mitseliyhoi havoiro ba vujud meovarand. Vale dar bisyor mavridho asosi rishtaho ba daruni moddai gizoi medaroyad va numu karda, mitseliyai gizodehro ba vujud meorad (ba vositai on moddahoi gizoi jabbida meshavand). Dar aksariyati Z. m. rishtaho tavassuti devorahoi arzi ba katakchaho taqsim meshavand, yane mitseliyi onho serhujayra meboshad. Dar baze Z. m.-i darajai past (magorho) rishtahoi mitseliy chunin devora nadorand va hamchun hujayrai buzurgi yagona meboshand. Zanburughoi khamirmoya (sakharomisetho) «khamirmoyai haqiqi» nomida meshavand, zero onho mitseliy hosil namekunand va faqat az hujayrahoi judogonai girdak yo bayzashakl iboratand.
Z. m. bo rohi gayrijinsi (vegetativi), ahyonan bo rohi jinsi meafzoyand. Dar surati afzoishi gayrijinsi mitseliyi serhujayra ba hujayrahoi alohida judo meshavad (har yaki onho mabdai tavlidi fardi nav megardad yo dar shokhahoi makhsusi rishtaho sporaho ba vujud meoyand); dar nugi rishtahoi baze anvoi Z. m. sporahoi zanjirshakl paydo meshavand. Hamirmoyaho bo rohi mugjabandi afzoish mekunand va dar in hol az hujayrai modari 1 – 2 – 3 hujayrai dukhtari judo meshavad; dar sharoiti muayyan khamirmoya bo rohi tavlidi askho – khaltachahoi sporador meafzoyad. Z. m.-i khamirmoyamonand khaltacha paydo namekunand.
Hangomi afzoishi jinsi du hujayrai jinsi (narina va modina) ba yakdigar vasl meshavand; dar Z. m.-i soddatarin dar natijai chunin ittisol tashkilai kurashakl – sporangiy (pur az spora ast) ba vujud meoyad. Dar Z. m.-i olidaraja (askomisetho) dar natijai ittisoli hujayrahoi narina va modina khaltae paydo meshavad, ki 2 – 8 spora dorad.
Baze Z. m. dar khok va pasmondahoi mavtshuda mesabzand (saprofitho), sipas ba rastani va jonvaron guzashta, parazit meshavand. Z m.-i digar baraks, badi dar rastani paraziti kardan va onro nobud sokhtan, dar pasmondahoi mavtshudai on hamchun saprofit umr ba sar mebarand. Aksariyati Z. m.-i parazit hamchun saprofitho gizo megirand (faqat barkhe az onho paraziti hatmiand). Bisyor zanburughoi tufayli bemorihoi gunoguni nabotot, hayvonot va odamiro ba miyon meorand. Baze navhoi Z. m. sifathoi mufid dorand va dar sanoatu tib istifoda meshavand.
Se guruhi kaloni Z. m. mavjudand: zanburughoi magor (pupanak), khamirmoya (khamirmoyamonand) va dermatofitho yo dermatomisetho (parazithoi pustu muyu nokhun).
Zanburughoi magor dar non, panir, sabzavotu meva, pasmondai nabotot, khuroki hayvonot, inchunin dar devori namnoki binoho mesabzand. Onho misli pardai patnoki sabz, zard, khokistarrang va siyoh buda, bui khokro dorand. Namnokii ziyod va harorati balandi havo ba afzoishi bosurati onho madad merasonad. Dar natija sporahoi ziyod paydo gashta, tavassuti shamol, hasharot va hayvonot ba joyhoi dur pahn meshavand.
Anvoi gunoguni zanburughoi jinsi aspergill va penisill az hama beshtar intishor yoftaand. Onho asosan dar khok va rastani zindagi mekunand; dar havo niz mavjudand va boshandai doimii pust va luobpardahoi hayvonotu inson meboshand.
Z. m.-i magor dar sanoati khurokvori va tib farovon istifoda meshavand. CHunonchi, parvardai dar muhiti gizoi sabzondai baze penisillhoro baroi tayyor kardani panirhoi «Rokfor» va «Kamamber» kor mefarmoyand. Tariqi ba dast ovardani kislotai limu va oksalat (bo rohi ba qand tasir rasondani aspergilli siyoh) kashf shudaast. Dar mamoliki sharq Z. m.-i jinsi mukor baroi istehsoli mashruboti spirti istifoda meshavad.
S. 1872 dermatologi rus A. G. Polotebnov avvalin shuda baroi tabobati zakhmi rimnok va zakhmhoi jarrohi magori sabz (penisill)-ro ozmud; terapevti rus V. A. Manassein dar bobati ba bakteriyaho tasiri halokatovar rasonidani penisill khabar dod. S. 1929 bakteriologi anglis A. Fleming ba kashfiyoti ajoibe noil gardid. u pay burd, ki dar yake az kosachahoi laboratorii Petri, ki parvardai stafilokokk dosht, koloniyai sabzi penisill rustaast va koloniyai stafilokokkhoi nazdi magori sabz nobud shudaand. Moddai ziddibakteriyavii az magor judokardai A. Fleming penisillin nomida shud. Dar IJSHS penisillinro s. 1942 Z. V. Ermoleva va T. I. Balezina ba dast ovardand. Penisillinro dar muolijai bemorihoi siroyati kor mefarmoyand. Dar oyanda antibiotikhoi gunogun, az jumla az parvardai penisillini zardcha antibiotiki grizeofulvin hosil namudand, ki baroi muolijai amrozi zanburugii pust, nokhun va muy khele mufid ast.
Baze az zanburughoi magor kasalihoi gunoguni ziroat, mevayu sabzavotro ba vujud meorand; digar kheli zanburugho boisi kasalii hasharot (magas, shapalak, zanburi asal va g.) megardand. Aspergillho ba bemorihoi vaznini noi nafas, havokhalta, shushi parrandahoi dashti va khonagi (kabutar, qoz, qu, murgi marjon va g.) va halokati onho sabab meshavand. Zanburughoi magor dar chorvo illati medayu ruda, dar modagovho kasalii rohhoi zoishro ba vujud meorand, ki boisi isqot (bachapartoi) megardad. Dar odamon bemorihoi zanburugii uzvhoi gunogun – mikozho paydo meshavand. Mas., baze anvoi aspergillho (zard, khokistari, suzanshakl, siyoh va g.) bemorihoi zanburugi – aspergillyozi pustu luobpardaho va uzvhoi darunro ba vujud meovarand. Aspergillyoz beshtar dar mavridi az luobpardai dahon va bodomakho ba rohoi nafas vorid shudani angezandaho, hamchunin dar shakhsone, ki az bemori zaif gashtaand yo mubtaloi bemorihoi vaznini shush – sil, saraton va g. meboshand, ba vujud meoyad. Aspergillyozi uzvhoi darun dar natijai nodurust va muddati madid ba kor burdani antibiotikho, gormonho va dig. doruho niz ruy medihad, chunki dar in hol tanosubi mutadili mikroflorai odam, vazi masuniyati organizm (nig. Immunitet) khalal meyobad. Ba aspergillyoz ahyonan hamchun bemorii kasbi korgarone, ki gallayu ordi magorzadaro intiqol medihand, naddofoni pashm, kanab va g. dar natijai nafas kashidani gardi sporaolud giriftor meshavand.
Hosa aspergillyozi pusti rohi berunii somea nisbatan bisyor vomekhurad. On asosan dar natijai bo gugirdchub, khas va dig. chizho koftani gush (dar onho mumkin ast sporahoi aspergill boshand) ruy medihad. Bemorii mazkur boisi gazak va khorishi sakht gardida, ba sadoparda va bazan ba gushi miyona va dokhili meguzarad. Dar natijai chashmro zakhmdor kardani khasu khoshoke, ki bo sporahoi zanburug oluda ast, aspergill qarniyaro dardmand mesozad. Reshe, ki dar in mavrid paydo meshavad, mumkin ast shakli muzmin girifta, boisi khadshai qarniya va kuri gardad. Aspergillyozi pust khele kam vomekhurad va dar shakli ekzema yo qarha badi osebhoi gunogun, hangomi kafidan va kharoshidani pust, rioya nakardan ba tozagi paydo meshavad.
Baze Z. m.-i magor az khud zahri khavfnok judo mekunand. Bemorihoe, ki onho ba vujud meorand – mikotoksikozho na ba tasiri halokatbori zanburugho ba boftaho, balki ba zahrolud shudan az mahsuli faoliyati hayotii onho (mikotoksinho) vobasta ast. Gov, asp, khuk, parrandaho dar charogoh va yo dar natijai istemoli gallayu khoshok, koh va dig. khurokihoi dar joyhoi zah nigohdoshtavu magorzada zahrolud megardand. Dar tamomi mamoliki dunyo az hama beshtar mikotoksikozho vomekhurand. Onho az aspergillhoi zard, khokistari, suzanshakl, khokistarii kabud, siyoh va dig. Z. m., ki misli saprofitho dar bisyor rastaniho maskunand, ba vujud meoyand. S. 1960 dar Angliya muromurii sarosari chujahoi murgi marjon ruy dod; dar natijai ba chujaho khurondani ordi arakhis, ki bo aspergillhoi zard oluda bud, 100000 sar parranda nobud shud. Az afshurai in ord moddae judo karda shud, ki «aflatoksin» nomidand; ba gizoi chujahoi murgobi hamroh kardani miqdori andaki aflatoksin boisi zud halok shudani onho megardid.
Agar odamon az gallai magorzada istifoda barand, gizohoi shiri va bo Z. m. oludaro istemol kunand, yo changero, ki sporahoi zanburugi dorad, nafas girand, ba mikotoksikozho giriftor meshavand. Bemorii rohhoi boloi nafas boisi surfai sakht, khunpartoi, dilbehuzuri, qay, dardi sar, tab megardad. Hodisahoe malumand, ki odamoni muddati tuloni bo gallai magorzada sarukordoshta ba tabi «galladonagi», korgaroni sanoati resandagi hangomi nafas kashidani changi bo sporahoi aspergill oluda ba tabi «naddofon» giriftor shudaand.
S-hoi 1954 – 55 dar YAponiya muromurii khukho mushohida shud, ki dar natijai sholii magorzadaro khurdani onho (penisillotoksikoz) paydo shuda bud. Bemorie, ki az asari zanburugi magori fuzarium rukh medihad (fuzariotoksikoz), khub omukhta shudaast. Bemori dar hayvonot va inson badi istemoli gallae, ki zimiston dar sahro monda, bo Z. m.-i fuzarium oluda shudaast, inkishof meyobad. Bemori dar odamon hamchun anginai vaznin jarayon megirad, ki bisyor vaqt margovar ast. Zuhuroti asosii bemori zafi tamomi organizm, qay, bazan, ragkashi va ikhtiloli harakat meboshad.
Hususan bemorie, ki az asari stakhibotris nom zanburugi magor ba vujud meoyad, qobili tavajjuh ast. On dar khok maskun ast; dar rastanihoi gunogun, hamchunin dar koh numu mekunad va boisi zahroludii sarosari aspho megardad. Stakhibotriotoksikoz bo zakhmi shudani luobpardahoi dahon, halq, bini, khunravi az bini va rostruda, ikhtiloli harakat, ragkashi zohir gardida, bisyor vaqt hayvonro halok mekunad. Dar bayni odamone, ki ba garam kardani kohi magorzada yo kashonidani on mashguland, khuruji in bemori mushohida shudaast. On boisi zafi umumi, zukom, reshi luobpardai zabon, lunj, balum, dardi sar, sarcharkhzani, khunravi az bini, khorishi pust (khususan dar mavzei uzvhoi jinsi) megardad.
Peshgirii bemorihoe, ki az asari zanburughoi magor paydo meshavand, az durust nigoh doshtani ziroati galladona va emu khoshok, khushkonidani galla, hamchunin nest kardan yo muvofiqi maqsad istifoda burdani emu khoshok va khurokvorii magorzada iborat ast. Galla va emu khoshok hangomi dar joi khushk nigoh doshtan, agar bo miqdori ziyodi spora oluda boshad ham, magor namezanad.
Zanburughoi khamirmoyagi va khamirmoyamonand guruhi kalonro tashkil medihand. Navhoi sershumori Z. m.-i khamirmoyagi dar khok va rastaniho mavjudand. Hamirmoyahoi asil baroi inson va hayvon bemoriovar nestand. Hosiyati payvasthoi organikii gunogun (beshtar karbogidrat)-ro turshondan va qandro ba spirt mubaddal kardani bisyor navi zanburughoi khamirmoyagi (sakharomisetho) az qadimulayyom malum ast (onhoro hamchun khamirturush kor mefarmoyand). Sakharomisetho doroi safeda, charb, karbogidrat, vitaminho (asosan guruhi V) meboshand; onho ba sifati khuroki hayvonot, inchunin dar sanoati tib va shir, nonpazi, istehsoli spirt, glitserin istifoda meshavand.
Z. m.-i khamirmoyamonand niz dar khok va nabotot zindagi mekunand. Hasharot, parrandaho, hayvonot va dar qatori onho inson niz homilini baze khelhoi zanburugi khamirmoyagi meboshand. In zanburugho bezarar buda, ba luobpardai dahon, rohhoi boloi nafas, uzvhoi hozima va mahbali odamoni solim roh meyoband. Bisyor gizoho – shir, tvorog, maska va qaymoq misli mevajot (khususan mevahoi shirin) Z. m.-i khamirmoyamonand dorand.
Helhoi gunoguni zanburughoi jinsi kandida dar sharoiti muayyan baroi inson ziyonovar gardida, kandidoz nom bemoriro ba vujud meorand. Zanburughoi kandida hangomi sust shudani quvvai difoii organizm, yane dar mavridi ikhtiloli mubodilai moddaho, bakhusus karbogidratho (hangomi diabet), bemorihoi medayu ruda, gipovitaminoz va g. khosiyati bemoriovarii khudro zohir mekunand.
Istemoli darozmuddati antibiotikho va doruhoi gormoni dar paydoishi kandidoz va hamchunin mikozhoi magor roli muhim mebozand. In doruho faoliyati bakteriyahoero, ki ba qadri zaruri dar ruda zindagi karda, ba afzoishi zanburughoi kandida mone meshavand, furu menishonand.
Zuhuroti kandidoz gunogun ast; besh az hama bemorii barfak – yane dardmandii luobpardai dahon (khususan dar tifloni navzod va bemoroni vaznini kalonsol) va illati pardai luobii mahbal vomekhurad; bazan shush, rudaho, nokhunho oseb mebinand. Bad az ikhtiroi antibiotikhoi ziddi khamirmoya – nistatin va levorin dar muolija va peshgirii bemorihoi Z. m.-i khamirmoyamonand natijahoi khub ba dast omadand.
Zanburughoi toifai kriptokokk, ki dar khok, beshtar dar sargini kabutarho va ahyonan dar luobpardahoi odamoni solim zindagi mekunand, mutaalliqi hamin guruh meboshand. Inson ba bemorii kriptokokkoz kam duchor meshavad. In bemori ba pardaho va jismi magzi sar tasir karda, khele vaznin jarayon megirad; holo chunin bemoron bo antibiotikho bomuvaffaqiyat muolija karda meshavand.
Dermatomisetho (dermatofitho) angezandahoi bemorihoi zanburugii pust meboshand. Onho guruhi nisbatan khurdi Z. m.-ro tashkil medihand. Taqriban hamai dermatomisetho tufayli (parazit)-i gayrisharti mahsub meyoband. Faqat yak namudi onho – mikrosporiumi gajmonand dar khok zindagi karda, bazan pust, muy va nokhuni insonro illati mesozad. Dermatomisetho az jihati bemoriovari ba du guruh judo meshavand: yak guruhi onho faqat dar badani inson, guruhi digar asosan dar tani hayvonot paraziti mekunad (az in guna hayvonot odamon siroyat yofta metavonand). Ba guruhi avval inho dokhil meshavand: trikhofitoni bunafsh (in nom ba rangi bunafshi koloniyae, ki dar muhiti gizoii suni parvarish yoftaast, vobastagi dorad) – angezandai asosii trikhofitiya; akhorioni SHenleyn – angezandai jarab (kali); mikrosporumi zanga – tavlidkunandai mikrosporiyai sathi; zanburugho – angezandahoi mikozi panjai po. Az in dermatomisetho hangomi tamos bo bemor yo az chizu chorai bo pulakchahoi pustu rezai nokhun va muyrezaho oludashuda, ki rishtai miseliy va sporai zanburug dorand, siroyat yoftan mumkin ast. Beshtar kudakon bemor meshavand.
Guruhi duyumro trikhofitoni gajmonand (angezandai trikhofitiyai mushu kallamushho), trikhofitoni ozakhsor (angezandai trikhofitiyai aksar modagovu gusolaho) va mikrosporumi pakhmoq (angezandai mikrosporiyai gurbavu sagho, ki homilini asosii in zanburugho meboshand) tashkil medihand. Siroyat dar vaqti tamos bo hayvoni kasal yo chizu chorai ba pashmi vay oluda rukh menamoyad. Baze dermatomisetho dar pusti tana va dastu poy donachahoi allergiro (nig. Allergiya) ba vujud meorand, ki goho boisi bad gashtani ahvol, tab va dardi sar meshavand. Zanburugho ba farshu devorhoi khona va asbobu anjomi ruzgor bo pulakchahoi pust, nokhun, muyrezahoi inson va pashmi hayvoni kasal meaftand. Oid ba peshgirii bemorihoi az asari dermatomisetho paydoshuda nig. Mikrosporiya, Jarab, Trikhofitiya, Mikozi panjai po, Epidermofitiyai qadkashak.
Guruhi makhsusro zanburughoi jinsi sporotrikhum (angezandai sporotrikhoz) va gormodendrum (angezandai khromomikoz) tashkil medihand; onho reshhoi tagdor va bardavomi pust va charbi zeri pustro ba vujud meorand. Zanburughoi sporotrikhum va gormodendrum dar tabiat khele pahn shudaand. Onho dar khok va nabotot maskun buda, nisbatan kam paraziti mekunand (saprofit meboshand). Ba sporotrikhoz odam, inchunin asp, sag va kallamushho, ba khromomikoz boshad, faqat odam (aksar vaqt hangomi ba pust khalidani khoru khas) giriftor meshavand. Az in ru, hardu bemori beshtar dar sokinoni dehot ba mushohida merasad; mamulan dastu poy, nokhunho va chehra oseb mebinad.
Ad.: Ibragimov F.I., Gribkovie zabolevaniya, Tashkent, 1971; Zoirov P.T., Bemorihoi pust, D., 1999; Hamon muallif, Bolezni koji, D., 2002; Hamon muallif, CHastnaya dermatologiya i venerologiya, D., 2007.

P. T. Zoirov.

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