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ZAMONI SHURAVI

Solhoi avvali asri 20 sharoiti ijtimoi-iqtisodi dar qorai Avruosiyo khele bad shuda bud. Jangi yakumi jahoni iqtisodi aksari kishvarhoi mintaqaro ba buhroni shadid muvojeh karda bud. Past budani maosh, sharoiti sangini kor ba korpartoivu tazohuroti gustardai korgaron dar in kishvarho sabab meshud.

Dar Imperoturii Rusiya sharoite pesh omada bud, ki poyahoi hokimiyat sust shuda, nufuzi bolshavikon afzoish yofta bud. Pas az Inqilobi fevrali soli 1917 podshoh sarnagun shuda, Hukumati muvaqqati rui kor omada bud. Bolshavikon az bemasu- liyatii Hukumati muvaqqati istifoda karda, bo tashviqu targib dar kumitahoi sarbozii qismhoi nizomi nufuzi ziyod paydo karda budand. Dar kishvar yak nav duhokimiyati ba vujud oma- da bud, ki nihoyat ba inqilob ovard.

shambariOktyabr-noyabri soli 1917 inqilobi bolshaviki dar Imperoturii Rusiya galaba kard va bolshavikon Hukumati muvaqqatiro sarnagun karda, hokimiyatro ba dast giriftand. Dar natijai in inqilob dar qalamravi Imperoturii Rus jumhurihoi SHuravii Rusiya, Ukroin, Belo- rus va Qafqoz tashkil karda shudand. 30 dekabri soli 1922 qarordodi tasisi Ittihodi jumhurihoi shuravii susiyolisti bayni hamin jumhuriho imzo shud. Dar marhalai avval, dar Osiyoi Miyona Jumhurihoi mukhtori susiyolistii Turkmaniston va Turkiston dar hayati Rusiya tashkil karda shudand. Solhoi 1924-1925 taqsimoti hududi-milli guzaronda, Jumhurihoi su- siyolistii Uzbakiston va Turkmaniston tasis doda shud, ki Tojikiston hamchun Jumhurii mukhtor dar hayati Uzbakiston tashkil shud. Dar natijai muborizahoi jonnisoronai farzan- doni millati tojik, nihoyat dar tarikhi 5 dekabri soli 1929 Jumhurii shuravii susiyolistii Tojikiston tasis doda shud, ki man dar in bora qablan hikoyat karda budam.

Tibqi nazariyai Karl Marks va Fridrikh Engels – asosgu- zoroni kommunizm, inqilobi kommunisti boyad dar tamomi dunyo yakbora ba vuqu meomad. Inqilobchiyoni rus ham dar marhalai avval hamin guna shior medodand va ba harakathoi inqilobii kishvarhoi digar kumak mekardand. Korgaron dar mamlakathoi digar az inqilobi Rusiya ruhbaland shuda, harakathoi inqilobkhohii ommaro tahrik medodand. Sarmo- yadoroni kishvarhoi digar az inqilobi rus ba tars uftoda, rohhoi peshgiri az inqilob dar kishvarhoi khudro mejustand va noguzir baroi behtar kardani sharoiti ijtimoii korgaron mekushidand.

Sarmoyadoroni kishvarhoi khoriji az ruzi avval kommu- niston va hukumati shuraviro dushmani ashaddii nizomi khud qabul karda, kishvari shuraviro dar inzivo (izolyatsiya) qaror dodand. Olami sarmoya bar ziddi in kishvar ba tavri besobiqa muttahid shuda, to shikast dodani on muboriza burd. In mubo- riza ba «musobiqai taslihot» ovarda rasond, ki ba ittifoqi nazari korshinoson, sababi asosii buhroni moli dar kishvar shud. Inchunin, Ittihodi shuravi baroi dastgirii kishvarhoi susiyolisti mablaghoi ziyod sarf mekard, ki bori molii sangine bar dushi budjai kishvar bud. Gayr az in, nizomi iqtisodii be molikiyati khususi raqobat va angezaro az bayn burda, sababgori rukud va buhroni amiqi moli shud, ki in omilho dar nihoyat ba shikastu barhamkhurii kishvari SHuravi ovard. Nukhbagoni shuravi nazariyai kommunistiro hamchun dogm qabul karda, to okhir poybandi on mondand va natavonistand baroi hifzi kish- var chorahoi muassir andeshand. Sababi asosii furuposhii in kishvari abarqudrat, pesh az hama, omilhoi iqtisodi budand.

Dar natija 8 dekabri soli 1991 saroni jumhurihoi Rusiya, Ukroin va Belorus hamchun muassisoni kishvar, qarordodi bar- ham dodani Ittihodi shuraviro imzo kardand, ki 26 dekabr SHuroi Jumhurihoi SHuroi olii Ittihodi shuravi Elomi- yai in barhamkhuriro qabul kard. Qarordodi mazkur tarikhi rasmii barhamkhurii Ittihodi shuraviro sabt kard, dar asl boshad, to in dam tamomi jumhuriho istiqloli khudro elon karda budand.

Ruzi korii hashtsoata, maoshi munosib, sharoiti zindagivu behdoshti qobili qabul baroi kormandon dar kishvarhoi olami sarmoya zeri tasiri inqilobi rus va tarsi sarmoyadoron az vuqui chunin inqilob dar kishvarhoyashon ba vujud omadaand. Inqilobi rus dar tarikhi kishvarhoi shuravi naqshi muhim bozida boshad ham, tasiri on dar hayoti ijtimoi-iqtisodii kishvarhoi olami sarmoya kamtar nabud.

Hamin tavr, dar avvali asri bist sarmoyadoroni kishvarhoi khoriji zeri tasiri inqilobi rus sharoiti koru zindagii korgaronro behtar karda boshand ham, rohhoi navi istismorro kashf kardaand. Agar dar on zamon sarmoyador bevosita sohibi korkhona buda, riski muflisshavii korkhona ba khudash va hamai molu mulkash tahdid mekarda boshad, aknun u dar pasi guruhi moli pinhon va dar hama hol az khatar emin ast. Gayr az in, dar olami sarmoya hama baroi sarvatmand shudani hamin guruhhoi moli kor mekunand. Ommai odamon bo giriftani qarzhoi bonki zindagiashonro obod mekunand. Hona, moshin, jihozi khona va gayraro bo qarzhoi bonki mekharand. Bonkho boshand, ba hamin guruhhoi moli taalluq dorand.

Az bayni in qarzho vomi maskan (ipoteka) abzori makhsusi sarmoyadoron baroi dar itoat va khizmat nigoh doshtani omma ast. Odatan, maoshi odamon baroi kharidani maskan namera- sad, zero qismi ziyodi maoshashon baroi pardokhti moliyotu bima sarf shavad, boqi kharji zindagi meshavad. Va onho baroi kharidani maskan qarzi darozmuddat girifta, onro har moh kam-kam az maoshi khud pardokht mekunand. Odatan, vomi maskan baroi 30-40 sol girifta shuda, odamro ba joi kor poyband me- kunad. Agar vom har moh ba tavri munazzam pardokht nashavad, bonk favran khonaro girifta, ba furush meguzorad va puli khudro meruyonad. Hamin tavr, hayoti odamon dar olami sarmoya asosan baroi pardokhti qarzho sarf meshavad, ki agar az yak su, korkhonahoro bo quvvai korii doimi tamin kunad, az sui digar, sarvati guruhhoi moliro afzun mekunad. Dar in nizom aksari afrodi jomea khudashon nadonista, bo kamoli mayl baroi sohiboni korkhonaho kor mekunand va toraft sarvati onhoro beshtar megardonand va dar natija in nizom noguzir boisi nobarobarii ijtimoi meshavad. Durust ast, ki nizomi kommunisti koroii khudro isbot karda natavonist, vale nizo- mi sarmoyadori niz ba barobari va adolat dar jomea musoidat namekunad.

Ideyai kommunisti dar marhalai paydoishash zehnhoi mu- tafakkironi tamomi dunyoro taskhir karda bud, zero volotarin aqlhoi insoniyat hamesha dar orzui sokhtani yak jomeai boa- dolat budaand. Dar solhoi avvali inqilob odamoni ziyode az kishvarhoi digar bo shavq ba kishvari SHuravi baroi sokhtani jomeai ormoni meomadand. YAke az chunin kason, ki sheftai ideyai kommunisti va sokhtani hayoti shoista baroi hamai azoi jomea bud, nobigai inglis – Bertrad Rossel niz dar hayati yak namoyandagi az sui hukumati Inglis bo ikhlos ba kishvari SHuravi tashrif ovard.

Rossel to omadanash ba Maskav on qadr havodori ideyai kommunisti bud, ki khudash ashrofzoda boshad ham, bo sababi tarafdori ideyai susiyolizm budanash, munosiba- tash bo doirahoi ayonu ashrofi kishvarash khele bad shuda bud. U dar in safari kutohi khud padidahoi ziyodero did, ki uro az tarzi ijroi in ideyai ormoni az tarafi bolshavikon dilsard kardand. Masalan, u did, ki peshvoyoni inqilob barobarivu barodarii insonhoro shiori khud elon karda boshand ham, az hamon ruzhoi avval dar qasru kushkhoi ayonu ashrofi qabli joy girifta, baroi khud zindagii shohona bunyod guzoshtaand. Makhsusan, dar vaqti bozdid az dehahoi rus holi zori dehqononu mardumi odiro dida, bo shukuhu jaloli hayoti navdavlaton muqoisa karda, kitobi «Nazariya va amaliyai bolshavizm»-ro navisht. Inchunin, u mushohida kard, ki dar kishvar sistemai totalitari hukmron buda, ozodihoi mamulii inson az qabili ozodii etiqod, ozodandeshi va oshkorbayoni shadidan sarkub meshavand. U ba khulosa meoyad, ki hukmronii ideoloji dar jomea noguzir ba totalitarizm mebarad va dar on adolat, ozodi va barobari joy doshta nametavonad. U meguyad: «Ideoloji yake az abzorhoi ramasoz ast». Aqli inson va ozodii andeshavu bayon- ro muharriki rushdi jomea donista, bolshavizmro niz misli kaliso, monea dar rohi peshraft mehisobad.

Inchunin, navisandai inglis Jorj Urvell to okhir taraf- dori ideyai susiyolisti monda boshad ham, dar borai ijroi badi on az sui bolshavikon dar Rusiya du kitob – «Dehkadai hayvonot» va «1984»-ro navisht, ki khele marufand va mohiyati sokhti SHuraviro barjasta inikos kardaand. Hulosai Jorj Urvel chunin ast, ki dar kishvari SHuravi jamiyat boz ham tabaqoti buda, «hama barobar, vale bazeho barobartarand». In nobarobari dar siyosati millii davlat niz joy dosht, ki aksari muhaqqiqon ba in kamtar ahammiyat dodaand, dar hole, ki mahz markazgurezii dar asari hamin siyosat dar jumhuriho bamiyonomada, yake az omilhoi asosii poshkhurii kishvar gashta bud. Tibqi siyosati milli, tamomi millathoi sokini kishvar «barodar» budand, vale millati rus «barodari buzurg» nomida meshud.

Ideyai kommunisti baroi khalqhoi mahallii Osiyoi Miyona shinos nabud. Onho hukumati SHuraviro, ki sarbozon va korga- roni rohi ohani rus dar Bukhoro inqilob karda, sokhta budand, hamchun hukumati gayr qabul mekardand. Korgaronu dehqononi mahalli mohiyati in ideyaro khub sarfahm nameraftand va khudro sohibi hokimiyat namedonistand. Hukumati shuravi barobari va barodarii khalqhoro shiori khud karda boshad ham, dar asl in ba hamon barobarii «bazeho barobartarand» monand bud. Masalan, hizbu hukumati markazi ba namoyandahoi khalqhoi mahalli kamtar etimod mekardand. Dar jumhurihoi milli shakhsi avvali hizb, ki amalan rohbar hisob meshud, az hisobi nafarhoi namoyandagoni milli tain karda shavad ham, hatman muovini u az millati rus intikhob meshud, ki Kremlin beshtar ba u etimod dosht. Inro nukhbagoni millathoi tahjoi nishonai nobovari talaqqi karda, dar baynashon norizoi paydo meshud, ki dar nihoyat yake az omilhoi markazgurezii nukhbahoi jum- huriho va dar natija, omili furuposhii Ittihodi shuravi shud.

Albatta, nizomi SHuravi khubihoi ziyod, az qabili tahsilot va behdoshti roygon dosht, ki dar borai on ziyod guftaandu na- vishtaand. Man in jo dar borai yak padidai jolib hikoyae meo- varam. Ittihodi shuravi dar jomea ashrofzodagi va imtiyozhoi irsiro az bayn burd. Dar jomea tabaqai ayonu ashrof vujud nadosht. Raison va rohbaron garchande «barobartar» budand va imtiyozote az qabili moshini khizmativu maoshi bolotar do- shtand, vale salohiyatu masuliyatashon az sui mardum nazorat meshud. Har kas metavonist ba amaldor ruirost erod bigirad va az ruyash shikoyat kunad. CHoplusi va tamalluq dar barobari amaldoron dar SHuravi roij nabud. Albatta, az korkhona to korkhonavu az mintaqa to mintaqa vazi in masala metavo- nist kame farq doshta boshad. Masalan dar Rusiya tamalluqu choplusi dar muqobili amaldoron nazdik ba sifr boshad, dar Osiyoi Miyona in padida kame beshtar ba chashm mekhurd, vale na ba haddi imruz, albatta. Ammo badi istiqlol ruaso guyo sohibi jonu moli mardum shudand va khushomadzanivu tamalluq dar muqobili onho avj girift.

Solhoi avvali ba tijorat mashgul shudanam, mo bakhshi kor- khonai resandagii nohiyai Vosero bo tajhizoti barq mujahhaz mekardem. Muhandisi barqi shirkati mo Bobokalonov nom mar- di tojiki ruszabon va khulqu atvorash ham rusi bud. U hamchun mutakhassis ba naqsha rohbari mekard. Baroi yori az mardumi mahalli 7-8 nafarro ba kor girifta budem, ki dar qatori manu Ismoil ba korhoi takhassusii barqkashi ba u yori mekardand.

Raisi khojagie, ki tarafi qarordodi mo bud, goh-goh omada, rafti korro nazorat mekard. U mardi qomatbalandi bosalobat va kalongir bud. Vaqte u dar sari kor paydo meshud, korgaro- ni mahalli korro partofta, ba salomash shitob mekardand. Maydoni kori mo khele kalon bud. Bobokalonov, ki gayr az rustab budan, dar kor niz khele munazzam va sakhtgir bud, az korro partofta ba dastfishorii rais davidani zerdastonash norohat meshud. Bore khudash bo dastoni az ravgani kabel siyoh, bo rais dastfishori karda, dasthoi uro oluda kard va ba u guft:

  • Aknun man dasthoyamro yak hafta nameshuyam!
  • CHaro? – pursid rais bo karohat ba dastoni oludai khud nigarista.
  • CHunki dastonam ba dastoni tabarruki SHumo rasidand, – javob dod Bobokalonov.
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