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ZAMIN: SHAKL VA BUZURGII ON

Zamin va digar sayyorahoi sistemai Oftob kurashakl meboshand. Kurashaklii onro hanuz olimi marufi YUnoni Qadim Arastu isbot karda bud. Badi isboti kurashaklii Zamin olimon andozai Zaminro muqarrar kardand, ki natijai on chunin ast: masohati sathi Zamin 510 mln. kilometri murabba, darozii khati istivo (ekvator) 40 000 kilometr, radiusi khati istivoi (ekvator) Zamin 6 378 kilometr, radiusi qutbi 6 356 kilometr.

globusIn nishon medihad, ki qutbhoi Zamin kame furukhamidaand. Az hamin sabab radiusi qutbi nisbat ba radiusi khati istivo 22 kilometr kutoh ast. Dar ayni zamon tavassuti radifhoi masnuii Zamin andozai shakli ellipsii Zamin aniq karda shudaast, ki ba shakli hakikii on nazdik meboshad. Ammo baroi oson namudani tahlili hodisahoi geografii Zamin va fahmidani farqiyati surati mahal va kharitai geografi Zaminro hamchun kura tasavvur kardan ba maqsad muvofiq meboshad.

Dar borai kurashakli va muayyan kardani andozahoi Zamin olimoni SHarq, az jumla Aburayhoni Beruni izhori aqida namuda, tadqiqot burdaast. U aqidai kurashaklii Zaminro tarafdori karda, baroi chen kardani doirai on kushish namudaast va hisobi Aburayhoni Beruni az hisobi hozira khamagy 110 km. farq mekunad.

Tasviri Zamin dar globus. Globus kurashaklii Zaminro ifoda menamoyad. On ahamiyati ilmi va amali dorad. Dar globus namudi zohirii Zamin, tarhi uqyonusho, materikho, jazira va nimjazirakho, daryoho, kulho va digar obekthoi geografi bar khilofi kharita shakl, darozi, andozai khudro digar namekunand va samt tagyir nameyobad. Az hamin sabab mutakhassisoni sohahoi gunoguni ilm hangomi omukhtani khosiyatho va tabiati Zamin az globus hamajoniba istifoda mebarand.

Miqyos va namudi globusho gunogun meshavand. Miqyosi tamomi namudi onho dar zerashon navishta shudaast. Dar globus nisbat ba kharita miqyos dar tamomi samtho yak khel memonad. Binobar in dar on masofai bayni obekthoi geografiro aniq chen kardan mumkin ast. Holo dar maktabho az globushoi Miqyosashon 1:8300000.        1:5000000.     1:30000000 istifoda mebarand. In Miqyoskho nisbat ba Zamin chand marotiba khurd budani globusro nishon medihand. Ikhtiroi globusi avvalinro (asri XVI) ba olimi nemis M. Bekhaym nisbat medihand. Ammo olim va mutafakkiri mashriqzamin Aburayhoni Beruni panj asr peshtar globus sokhta bud va onro baroi muayyan kardani arzu tuli shahrho istifoda burdaast. U aqidai tagiryobii kishri Zamin (evolyutsiyai geology)-ro pesh guzoshta, oid ba masalahoi paydoishi kuhho, harakati qitakhho joyivazkunii bahru bar muhokima rondaast.

Bad az hasht asr (asri XVIII) dar Rusiya olimoni rus nakhustin globusi akhtarnamoi olamro sokhtand, ki dar dokhili on 12 nafar odam joy megirad. In globus kholo dar shahri Sankt-Petsrburg mahfuz ast.

Globusi Hoji YUsuf. Ba aqidai olimoni geograf va munajjimon globusi ikhtirokardai olim va sayyohi tojik Hoji YUsuf bad az sokhta shudani globusi Aburayhoni Beruni (asri IX) va globusi astronomii rasadkhonai Mirzo Ulugbek (asri XV) seyumin globus ast dar tarikhi ilmi SHarq. Vale to ruzhoi mo tanho globusi Hojy YUsuf Mirfayozovi khujandi (solkhoi 1842-1925) rasidaast. In globus az nuqtai nazari ilm khele mukammal ast .

Hoji YUsuf in globusro soli 1895 sokhtaast. On bo ranghoi surkhi baland, tushi siyoh va zardchatob oro doda shudaasg. Bo khathoi nastaliqi araby va khati kufi nomhoi uqyonuskho va qitaho navishta shudaand. Globus bo khathoi tulu arz pechonda shudaast. Hathoi meridian va khathoi muvozi bo tushi siyoh, doirahoi tropiki va qutbho bo rangi surkh kashida shudaand. Darajai on az nuqtai meridiani Grinvich nabuda, balki az tarafi garbii qitai Afrika ibtido megirad, ki in nuqtaro olimon to asrhoi okhir niz nuqtai nul (meridiani ibtidoi) mehisobidand. Dar globus uqyonushoi Orom, Atlantika, Hind, Bahri Miyonazamin. Bahri Safed aks yoftaand.

khochi yusuf

Hochi YUsuf dar vaqti navishtani nomhoi geografi ba kadri imkon az lugat va istilohoti forsiyu tojiki istifoda kardaast. Qitai Avstraliya bo haftod adad jaziraho tasvir yoftaast. Jazirahoi qitahoi Amerikai SHimoli va Janubi az sad beshtarand. Dar qismi janubii qitai Afrika si adad jazirakho tasvir yoftaand. Globusi Hochy YUsuf nisbat ba glbbushoi digar az nuqtai nazari astronomy ham mukammal ast. Masalan, doirai (pahnoi) khati istivo takhminan 10 sm buda, burjhoi chor fasli Zamin (mavqei Zamin nisbat ba harakati khud va Oftob) – bahor, tobiston, tiramoh va zimiston kashida shudaast. Globusi Hoji YUsuf dar osorkhonai shahri bostonii Samarqand nigoh doshta meshavad.

Savol va suporish

  1. SHakli Zamin chi guna ast?
  2. Ki avvalnin marotiba kurashaklii Zaminro isbot kardaast?
  3. Globus az kharita chi afzaliyat dorad? 4
  4. Globus chiro tasvir menamoyad?
  5. Baroi chi dar globus sahvu khato mushohida nameshavad?
  6. Az run globus koordinathoi shahri Dushanbero muayyan namoed.
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