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ZAMINAHOI PAYDOISHI KOMPYUTER

Ba savoli «Kompyuterro ki sokhtaast?» javob guftan khele dushvor ast. Gap dar sari on ast, ki kompyuter ikhtiroi yak shakhs nest. Kompyuter tajassumgari goyahoi olimon va muhandisoni davru zamonhoi gunogun ba hisob meravad, ki onho sadsolaho dar peshburdi tekhnikai hisobbaror zahmatho kashidaand. Perafti tekhnikai hisobbarorro hamesha talabot bahisobbarorihoi favri va aniq muayyan mesozad. In talabot omilest, ki on doimo in tekhnikaro mukammal megardonad va in ravand holo ham davom dorad.

Tavre ki televizorhoi muqarrarii siyohu safedro holo televizorhoi rangai alosifat ivaz namudaand, kompyuterhoi hozirazamon tanho zinai avvali ofarinishi moshinhoi barkamol va aqlonist.

Zaminahoi paydoishi kompyuterhoi imruza kadomhoyand? inson dar tamomi davrahoi mavjudiyati khud ba tajhizoti hisobbarori ehtiyoj dosht. To paydoishi avvalin namunahoi tajhizoti hisobbarori, odamon hazorho sol muqaddam baroi

ehtiyojoti khojagii khud hangomi hisobkuniho az angushton, sangho, chubchaho, resmonhoi girehdor, tasmahoi surokhdor va gayraho istifoda meburdand.

Bo ziyodshavii hajmi hisobkuniho, inson ba koftukovi usulhoi ijrokunii onho va ikhtiroi asbobhoi hisobbarori shuru namud. YAke az chunin asbobhoi qadima va khele mashhur chut (schyot) ba hisob meraft. To imruz kase aniq gufta nametavonad, ki chut kay va dar kujo paydo shudaast. Tarikhshinoson bar on aqidaand, ki chut taqriban 2000-5000 sol muqaddam yo dar Hitoi qadim, yo dar Misr va yo dar YUnon sokhta shudaand. Az in asbobi hisobbarori imruzho niz dar bisyor mamlakathoi dunyo istifoda mebarand.

Pas az paydoishi chut, dar tuli yakchand sadsolaho niz, asbobhoi hisobbarori khele sodda budand. Vale dar ibtidoi asri XVII mutakhassisoni sohahoi fizika va astronomiya ba zarurati ijrokunii hisobkunihoi murakkab va kalonhajm ru ba ru gashtand. In asr asri tadbiqi vasei ilmi matematika dar digar sohaho ba shumor meravad. Talabot ba moshinhoe, ki hajmi kaloni hisobbarorihoro dar muddati kutoh, bo sahehii baland ijro karda metavonista boshand, ruz to ruz meafzud.

Soli 1642 matematiki 19 solai fransavi Blez Paskal (1623-1662) dar jahon avvalin shuda moshini hisobbarorii (arifmometr) mekhanikiro ikhtiro namud, ki on bo adadhoi dahi amalhoi jam va tarhro ijro karda metavonist. Ham schyotho va ham moshini Paskal imkoniyathoi mahdudi hisobbarori doshtand. Nabudani asbobi hisobbarorie, ki vazifahoro zud va aniq ijro mekarda boshad, ba on ovard,

ki qismi ziyodi tajribahoi guzoshtashuda umuman ijro nashuda memondand yo baroi ijrokunii onho mohho va hatto solho talab karda meshud. Baroi sokhtani asbobi mukammaltar boshad, ziyoda az 50 sol lozim shud.

Soli 1694 matematiki barjastai nemis Gotfrid Vilgelm fon Leybnits (1646-1717) moshini hisobbarorii navbatiro sokht. Imkoniyathoi moshini Leybnits az moshini Paskal ziyodtar budand va az rui konstruksiya niz in moshin murakkabtar bud. Moshini Leybnits na tanho chor amali arifmetiki – jam, tarh, zarb va taqsimro ijro karda metavonist, balki az reshai kvadrati niz adadhoro barovarda

metavonist. Vale in moshin niz talabothoi ruzafzuni hisobbarorihoi matematikiro qone gardonida natavonist. Taqriban pas az 100 sol boz masalai sokhtani moshini hisobbarorii mukammaltar pesh omad.

Savolho:

  1. Kompyuterro ki sokhtaast?
  2. Odamoni qadim az kadom tajhizoti hisobbarori istifoda meburdand?
  3. Schyot kay va dar kujo sokhta shudaast?
  4. Sahmi B. Paskal dar peshburdi sohai hisobbarori dar chist?
  5. Arifmometri G. Leybnits az arifmometri B. Paskal chi farq dosht?

Suporish:

  1. Matni mavzuro bodiqqat khoned va onro naql kuned.
  2. Bo yorii resmon, sangchaho va tasmahoi az varaq sokhtashuda asbobhoi hisobbarori sozed.
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